Monday, September 30, 2019

Munich Massacre

The Munich Massacre was the name given to the terrorist attack during the 1972 Olympic Games in Munich, West Germany. Eight Palestinian terrorists from the group Black September killed two members of the Israeli Olympic team and then took nine others hostage. The situation was ended by a huge gunfight that left five of the terrorists and all of the nine hostages dead. Following this tragedy, the Israeli government organised retaliation against Black September, called Operation Wrath of God and also Operation Spring of Youth.They called on all world governments to take more effective action against the Arab guerillas responsible. (Source 2) The massacre was a major event in the war between the Palestine and Israel people. It shocked the world and confirmed a harsh reality, that no one is safe from terrorism. The Munich massacre was brought on because of the war between the Arab and Israeli people. The operation was called â€Å"Ikrit and Biram†, after two Palestinian villages w hose settlers were killed or forced out by the present day Israel Defence Forces in 1948.This could have possibly been used as a motivator for the Black September group. In the 1972 Olympic Games, the Olympic Committee hoped to erase the memories of the usage of the Olympics in 1936 in Berlin to promote propaganda for Hitler and the Nazi party. They tried to introduce a friendly and peaceful atmosphere. However this also meant the level of security would be lower. As this was the country where Jews were previously condemned and hunted down during the Holocaust, the decision to make this Olympics more relaxed and with less security, was controversial.This controversy and lack of German security caused unrest amongst the Israeli people following the Massacre. Nearly two weeks into the Olympic Games, on September 5, the members of the Palestinian terrorist organization, Black September, which were part of the fedayeen group, (Arabic for â€Å"men of sacrifice† and used often by Islamic terrorists to describe themselves) scaled the six foot wire fence that encircled the Olympic Village at 4 a. m. (Source 1). Although they were seen by various people, it did not arouse suspicion since athletes regularily hopped the fence. Source 3) At 4:30 a. m. the disguised assailants, carrying kitbags filled with assault rifles (AK-47), pistols and grenades, headed towards the apartments where the innocent athletes slept. The masked attackers entered and rounded up the coaches and officials from Apartment 1 and were lead to a group of athletes staying in Apartment 3, gaining more hostages. Some of the Israelis fought back; two of them, Moshe Weinburg and Yossef Romano, were killed. In the midst of the valiant Israeli retaliation, a few terrified Israelis were luckily able to escape.Nine were taken hostage. (Source 3) At around 5 am, the police had been alerted and news of the attack had begun to spread around the world. At 9:30 a. m. the Black September group announced th ey were Palestinians and demanded that Israel release more than 200 Arab prisoners and grant them safe passage out of Germany. They also sought the release of two German terrorist prisoners. The Germans began to stall the terrorists but eventually offered the Palestinians an unlimited amount of money for the release of the athletes, as well as the substitution of high-ranking Germans.However, the kidnappers refused both offers. The German police then decided to plan an assault and rescue operation. The border police, badly trained and unorganised took position on the roof dressed in Olympic sweat suits and wielding sub-machine guns. However because of camera crews filming the police men from nearby buildings the terrorists saw the attack coming from the TV. When the leader of the group Luttif Afif or â€Å"Issa† threatened to kill two hostages, the police retreated.After hours of tense negotiations, the Palestinians agreed to a plan whereby they were to be taken by helicopter to the air base at Furstenfeldbruck where they would be given an airplane to fly them and their hostages out of Germany and into Cairo, Egypt. (Source 3) The Israeli athletes and the Black September group were then transported by bus to a helicopter which brought them to Furstenfeldbruck air base. The German police organised a sniper team to wait for the terrorists to eliminate them with as little casualties as possible.At 10:30 pm the helicopters landed and once on the ground, the terrorists realized there was a trap. The German sharpshooters attempted to kill the terrorists and a bloody firefight ensued. The Israeli hostages could do nothing. They were sitting, tightly bound and blindfolded in the helicopters parked on the runway. â€Å"Perhaps, surprisingly, the fedayeen did not kill them right away. They might have been too busy returning the sharpshooters' fire and dodging their bullets.They might even have felt a reluctance to kill nine obviously defenceless men: a kind of a nimal inhibition that has been known to stay the hand of the most desperate murderers†. (Source 1) Two Black September members and one German police officer were killed in the standoff. A stalemate followed for over an hour and at 11:00 pm the media was mistakenly informed that the hostages had been saved and the news was announced to a relieved Israeli public. When the German police armoured cars arrived to the air base, the terrorists knew the end had come.With the Israeli hostages in two separate helicopters, the leader of the Black September group, â€Å"Issa† opened fire on the hostages on the first helicopter, then pulled the pin and threw a grenade into the cockpit, killing all hostages inside. The hostages in the second helicopter met the same fate as the hopeless terrorists gunned down the Israeli victims. The snipers and armoured vehicles then took out three more terrorists, one being the leader of the tragic event, Luffif Afif. Three terrorists escaped but we re captured by German police shortly later.The tragedy ended in bloodshed and scarred the people of Israel. Victims (Israeli Athletes)- Moshe Weinburg, Yossef Romano, Ze'ev Friedman, David Berger, Yakhov Springer, Eliezer Halfin, Yossef Gutfreund, Kehat Shorr, Mark Slavin, Andre Spitzer, Amitzur Shapira (German Police Officer)- Anton Fliegerbauer Terrorists responsible (Killed)- Luttif Afif â€Å"Issa†, Yusuf Nazzal â€Å"Tony†, Afif Ahmed Hamid â€Å"Paolo†, Khalid Jawad â€Å"Salah†, Ahmed Chic Thaa â€Å"Abu Halla†. (Captured)- Mohammed Safady â€Å"Badran†, Adnan Al-Gashey â€Å"Denawi†, Jamal Al-Gashey â€Å"Samir†. Source 3) Surprisingly, decided by the Olympic Games Committee, the games continued. The massacre of 11 Israeli athletes was not considered serious enough to cancel or postpone the Olympics. Jim Murray of the Los Angeles Times wrote at the time, â€Å"Incredibly, they're going on with it†, and â€Å"It' s almost like having a dance at Dachau†. However, the Munich Massacre still had enormous effects on the Olympic Games and to the public. Security from then on was permanently increased. The event alarmed countries worldwide and spurred the realisation of needed action against terrorist rimes. The rumours arose from the Israeli public that the German security forces poorly handled the rescue operation. Still, the Israeli government were pleased with Germany's actions as the Israeli Foreign Minister, Mr. Abba Eban stated clearly that they approve the German government's decision to use force against the Palestinian terrorists. (Source 2) The Israel nation gained sympathy from countries worldwide as the actions of the Palestinian terrorists was condemned. The Israeli Prime Minister, Mrs.Golda Meir, received messages of concern and sympathy from united countries against this act of terrorism including Western European countries, the United States and Canada. American President Nix on described the killings as â€Å"a tragedy for all the nations of the world†. Similiarly, the British Foreign Secretary, Sir Alec Douglas-Home declared that â€Å"the terrible events in Munich have appalled the civilised world. On behalf of Her Majesty's Government, I send my deepest sympathy at the grievous loss which Israel has suffered†. (Source 2) This lead to the creation of many Government counter-terrorism organisations.The furious Israeli government retaliated by allowing the Mossad (national intelligence agency of Israel) collect information and organise covert operations against the Palestinians. Operation Wrath of God and Operation Spring of Youth was devised to target and execute the high-ranking Palestinians suspected of planning or being involved with the massacre (Source 1). Steven Spielberg’s â€Å"Munich† inspired by the true events and the book â€Å"Vengeance† by George Jonas, shows the supposed, yet believed fictional, deadly response of the Israeli government and Mossad against the individuals responsible or involved in the appalling tragedy.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

Smokey Joes Cafe and Away

The concept of journey exceeds beyond physically traveling, as the traveller encompasses an emotional and intellectual journey along the way. These journeys are a process in which the traveller grows and changes in response to extending themselves out of their comfort zones and overcoming the struggle with themselves, each other and with nature. The play ‘Away’, composed by Michael Gow through the use of dramatic techniques and the novel ‘Smokey Joe’s Cafe through language techniques have both demonstrated how physical Journeys impacts on the travellers inner growth. Away’, set in the late 1960’s reflects the Australian events and situations at that time. These shape the attitudes and behaviour of the characters Gow uses, it strengthens Australia’s historical context for the audience. There is a cyclical structure Nature is a symbolic theme that sharpens ‘Away’ physical setting. Gow significantly sets the play over the Chris tmas holidays, portraying three ordinary yet contrasting families that are eventually drawn together by the power of nature. This time of year symbolises the birth of Christ that contradicts the imminent death of Tom.His approaching imminent death of Tom. Tom’s approaching death heals the characters, as they become linked to the natural cycle, we are born to die. â€Å"Give me your hands if we be friends, and Robin shall restore Amends. ‘ ( Act 1, Sc 1) This signifies the beginning journey of reconciliation and acceptance through use of intertextuality. Gow has made cross reference with Shakespeare. Tom’s role as Puck, infiltrated from a ‘Midsummer Night’s Dream’, encapsulates his significance in the overall play.Puck’s power to restore and heal alludes and soaks into Tom’s character as his awareness of both life and death become the base of power for a catalyst change in others. Tom’s ability to transform Coral and inspi re his parents is expressed through the play within a play. ‘Stranger on the shore† Tom’s deep sense of his own mortality is life giving to others, he expresses impending death and his capacity to care for other’s lifts coral from her darkness. â€Å"I’m walking, I’m walking, I’m walking. symbolis for Corals renewal in her emotional journey, while Repetition of walking reinforces she is back to reality The plant â€Å"Coral† symbolizes a lifeless skeleton that is fragile and easy to break, just like the character in â€Å"Away†. Coral undergoes a vast transformation through the physical journey, from being repressed because of her son’s death to finally accepting that he is gone. Coral – her emotional recovery is profound. She symbolically and emotionally ‘returns from the dead’. She has been away from herself since the death of her son and has been unable to deal in the real world effectively.T he physical journey she undertakes to the beach is a metaphor for her emotional journey to recovery of self and ability to ‘walk’ in the world of the living. Physical setting – Earth; place of respite and rest Beach allows for cleansing, harmony Water: through both sea and storm, emphasises idea of change as its dark and has unknown depths, yet can also be life giving. Air evokes destruction through Bonfire: Ancient symbol of life. Its warmth draws those characters, who have been renewed, it confirms the redemption they have achieved.And the insight enveloped around each character portraying their inner growth.. Similarly in ‘Smokey Joe’s cafe, Bryce has used historical information on the Vietnam war to create his characters and setting to enable a more appealing and indulgent recite for the reader. Courtenay has used the power of nature throughout the Vietnam veteran’s journey, fathomed most in the Vietnam jungle. The jungles landscape became secondary growth with, bamboo everywhere, all of it tangled and dense and hard to see or move through. â€Å"The bloody jungle was the enemy as much as the Viet Cong (pg. ) Thommo says this highlighting the soldier’s physical journey that overcame the difficult obstacles and level of areas they were subjected to. Nature’s demolition lead to the motive of Agent Orange, a main issue manufactured for Vietnams â€Å"(pg. 7) . They sprayed it in our tents, in our weapon pits, in our kitchens and mess halls and in our latrines. It would be on our plates we ate off and the cups we drank off. † Courtenay introduces Thommo fand the soldiers to recount,- flashbacks†¦ The start of the physical journey â€Å"That’s what it was; a big hole with hills called Yama’s surrounding it, filled with water that might as well have been shit.It felt like shit. Tasted like shit and smelled like shit, when you fell into it, it stuck to you like shit sticks to a blan ket. † (pg 70) Preparation for the jungle (Still in Australia) highlights the beginning of change, and growth the soldiers will experience†¦ The use of repetition, simile, colloquialism, introducing†¦ â€Å"Crackle-pop-crackle-pop-pop-pop† â€Å"Putta putta putta putta† (Page 3) Onomatopoeia has been used to echo the firing of an AK47, and the ‘dust off blades of an emerging helicopter picking up the wounded’.The sounds give a sense of battle while Thommo describes it from a nightmare that is recounted from the past events of Long Tan; it establishes the hardship Thommo goes through, finding it difficult to settle back into society. All of these paragraphs Don’t link or refer back to question It didn’t help that Australia treated them like a bunch of mercenaries guilty of war crimes. â€Å"You killed children! †(Pg43) Angela, a local says this to Spags showing her disapproval and resentment for him.It establishes the ho stility and non-acceptance society felt towards the soldiers, their lack of understanding, going by the distorted media, regarded them not as heroes, but pure murderers. Societies attitude towards the war created diversity between the vets and the community â€Å"It seems the real heroes were the nice little boys and girls who marched in the Anti- Vietnam rallies chanting slogans, waving the Viet Cong flag and passing a joint around while the cops looked on. † (Pg. 10). This shows Thommo and the soldiers are filled with fury and irritation for the people and Government.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Christian Leader Audit Sample Essay

The Christian Leader Audit helps determine the overall strength of the leader as a Christian. Is the leader a strong Christian leader, above average Christian leader and so on? As Malphurs exclaims, as Christian leaders our â€Å"mandate is to lead Christianly regardless of the context.† This audits one’s commitment to Christ, godly character, reliance on God and ability to live by example. I scored a nine on the audit and according to my score I am a strong Christian leader. Practicing servant leadership was a given for me. It has always been a passion of mine to serve others in any way possible. I have always believed that you must lead by example. In student ministry this often means that I look for opportunities to serve students so that they can see in living color what being a servant looks like. Some examples would be sharing what I have with students. I find that any time I can share a meal with someone or share some money with someone in need that this a great opportunity for me to lead by example. Often, I find myself not just asking others to clean up but I join them in cleaning up. I try to make sure that I never have the attitude that I am â€Å"too good† to do something. As I further reflected on this audit I found that while most of the time I lead by the power of the Holy Spirit there are times when I launch out ahead of the Holy Spirit on my own. I often find myself praying that I would not get ahead of the Spirit but if I am honest I will admit that I get excited or at times frustrated and move out on my own. This was a good reminder for me that I must always be sensitive to God’s Spirit as I lead others making sure that I am staying in stride with God’s Spirit and not pulling ahead or falling behind. Aubrey Malphurs, Being Leaders:The Nature of Authentic Christian Leadership, (Grand Rapids, Michigan, Baker Books:2003), 13.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Business Management Skills..... Leadership VS Management Essay

Business Management Skills..... Leadership VS Management - Essay Example The role of a manager is a difficult one. This person has to take with him the whole company and mesh the different processes so that he could get instant results. He is a team leader right from the onset of his job. He needs to get work done from the different people who are working under him. The end result has to be a single goal, one that drives their efforts towards the financial success of the said organization. In doing so, the manager encounters a lot of hindrances, difficulties and hurdles. (Heath, 1994) He has to face a lot of pressure from the top most management, the people who are senior to him even. He has to be accountable to the publics of the organization, which could include the customers and the stakeholders as well since the latter are the people who have invested within the company’s shares and they want a quick buck out of the whole investment drive. On the other hand, business leadership is all about influencing other people in the organization to accomplish a task. It involves directing an organization in that it becomes more coherent and cohesive. Business leadership style can therefore be defined as approach for providing direction. It includes motivation. There are various business leadership styles that exist in business management. They include authoritarian or autocratic, participative or democratic, delegation or free reign business leadership. (Guarrero, 1998) The basic difference between a business leader and a business manager is within their working domains. They are basically doing the same job of managing people but in slightly different capacities. Whereas the business leader looks at forming instructions of his own which he will forward to the middle management, the middle line business managers basically aim to ‘manage’ people in the real sense of the word. This means that business managers have a duty of understanding the deep rooted values of the organization and the same cannot be

Thursday, September 26, 2019

Al Qaeda Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Al Qaeda - Research Paper Example Under these criteria are the 5 levels of anti-US sentiments, and 5 capability indicators. These are built into an analytical framework which consists of 3 parts. The 1st is the scale of intent and capability relationship. Second is the qualitative description of the scale of intent and capability. Third are the 10 levels of thresholds within intent and capability. Using the 'Indicators of Terrorist Group Intentions' in the evaluation of the manual retrieved by law enforcement officers in a suspected Al-Qaeda apartment in the United Kingdom the table below shows: Al Qaeda is a highly capable group and has demonstrated any anti-U.S. sentiment. Al Qaeda would be categorized as a "2." The 2 value was assigned because the manual states the members of the organization will be accompanied by the other members of the country for that operation. Al Qaeda also targets building especially with in line with the economics. Their operations were local and international because of their access in the communication process which was stated in the manual. Al Qaeda was categorized also as a "4." The 4 value was assigned because the manual states the building constructions, choice of exact locations for the target and headquarter for the operation, and etc. Using the 'Indicators of Terrorist Group Capabilities' in the eva... Capabilities in a Changing World; Publisher: RAND (Cragin and Daly, 2004) Using the 'Indicators of Terrorist Group Intentions' in the evaluation of the manual retrieved by law enforcement officers in a suspected Al-Qaeda apartment in the United Kingdom the table below shows: Threshold of Anti-U.S. Sentiment for the Al-Qaeda manual Numerical Value Association with another terror group that seeks to target U.S. citizens and Institutions 2 Targeting U.S. citizens and/or property to pursue a local agenda 4 Al Qaeda is a highly capable group and has demonstrated any anti-U.S. sentiment. Al Qaeda would be categorized as a "2." The 2 value was assigned because the manual states the members of the organization will be accompanied by the other members of the country for that operation. Al Qaeda also targets building especially with in line with the economics. Their operations were local and international because of their access in the communication process which was stated in the manual.Al Qaeda was categorized also as a "4." The 4 value was assigned because the manual states the building constructions, choice of exact locations for the target and headquarter for the operation, and etc. Using the 'Indicators of Terrorist Group Capabilities' in the evaluation of the manual retrieved by law enforcement officers in a suspected Al-Qaeda apartment in the United Kingdom, the table below show: Thresholds of Demonstrated and Perceived Attack Skills Numerical Value Successfully coordinate multiple attacks 5 Al Qaeda was categorized as a "5." The 5 indicator of terrorist group capability was assigned because the manual states the formal line up of all the perfect operation for every instance. The commander to members of the

Project management Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 2

Project management - Coursework Example The case: S M Construction has been awarded a contract to build a new manufacturing plant just outside Cardiff. The activity on arrow table below gives data on the activities involved in the plant’s construction. The excellent timeline view, provided by Ms project, is one of the features that contributed to the usefulness of this software (Muir, 2004, 59). The feature allowed for organizing each execution, listed in the case, regardless of whether they were complicated or long projects. This made the coordination between the projects, both long and short, much easier. Further, the compatibility of the project to other office apps also contributed to the successful execution of the task assigned by SM construction. The compatibility allowed for a presentation in Microsoft word, through copy pasting for better understanding. Further the software made it easy to derive relationship between the presented activities, thereby presenting an activity node diagram worth appraising (Taylor & Dow, 2013, 45). From the above case, the use of MS project proved that the SM construction project manager can minimize cost from  £26000 to  £19000. This was obtained by extracting a critical path from network diagram, which showed the shortest route possible. The network diagram showed that the lowest cost will be along 1-2, 1-3, 2-5, 5-6. Mind manager is another software, apart form Microsoft project, which can be use to perform the exercise presented by SM constructions (Lowery, 2001, 7). Managing such project, as presented, is made easier by mind manager through its outstanding feature of graphically compiling the data. The software allows users to add relationship between given activities and sub activities within a given project. Intuitively, the effectiveness of mind managers lies in how easy it allows users to organize information and

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

Syndrome X Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 6250 words

Syndrome X - Essay Example Metabolic syndrome, clinically termed as "Syndrome X," is in fact a constellation of symptoms leading to hypertension, obesity, and lipid abnormalities. The main factor underlying all these symptoms are traced to a resistance to insulin on the one hand and excessive release of insulin on the other. Syndrome X has a history which is of recent origin. The obesity dimension to the syndrome was added on subsequently in order to reveal the interconnectedness of the symptoms. The main causative factors leading to Syndrome X relate to poor dietary habits and lifestyle related factors. These include diets with high fat content, abnormally rich consumption of refined sugar, sedentary lifestyles with low or no physical exercise and a genetic make up that makes an individual susceptible to Syndrome X. The incidence of Syndrome X in the Western world has assumed alarming proportions. For instance, in USA, data from the National Health Nutritional Survey for the years 1988 to 1994 reports that ne arly 50 million Americans exhibited symptoms of Syndrome X (1). In the year 2006 Syndrome X figures may be well past 75 million. Such a wide prevalence automatically qualifies this syndrome as a topic of research. The emphasis of the research is to develop several approaches towards treating Syndrome X. In fact Syndrome X has been a bane of affluent societies which have afforded a comfortable and luxurious lifestyles to their members with little of no physical exertions. Impact of Syndrome X and the Various Approaches Towards its Treatment Syndrome X has been defined with limited symptoms in its theoretical construct however its physical manifestations are far and wide. Though, invariably, it is associated as a major cause of cardiovascular disease, it is also acknowledged that the syndrome may be a big contributory factor and accessory in morbidity and mortality in other conditions like non-alcoholic fatty-liver, female reproductive disorders, polycystic ovary syndrome, disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, gestational diabetes mellitus. It also seems to contribute to major changes in body eicosanoid profile, apart from having active roles in some other categories of cancer (2). With such far reaching adverse impacts, which also include leading to mortality and disabilities in major diseases the research discussions world wide have focused to obtain a single and comprehensive approach to the syndrome. While pharmacological approaches have

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Minor Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Minor - Essay Example The subject of this analysis is a singular piece of art titled; electric sheep, created by Scott Draves, which personifies â€Å"dreams of machines† through artificial life forms, generated using computer software. The concept is a combination of human and machine, a cyborg mind that has over 450,000 participants globally connected via the internet. The connected computers work together to form a supercomputer that renders animations referred to as sheep which anyone on the system can see (Draves, 2005). The software for this artwork can be installed on any PC or android device, when these computers ‘sleep’, the sheep come to life and communicate with each other via the internet. Those connected to the network can vote for their favourite sheep using the keyboard, with time the most popular sheep will last longer as the less voted for are phased out (Ekà ¡rt, Sharma & Chalakov, 2011). On the screens of thousands computers, survival for the fittest, with people being judges, is played out on a digital â€Å"canvas† as the sheep evolve at the pleasure of the digital audience. Each of the participating computers follows a set of mathematical instructions. On the electric shee p website, viewers can trace back the families of sheep through the family trees with the artist’s clade showing a section of family members in HD. Participants in this art project can benefit from the code made freely available online since it is open sourced making it easy for more people to take part and introduce their creations. Critics mirroring the ex post factor epistemological school of thought in which art was considered based on the essence of truth rather than something constructed have opposed the notion of technology in art (Becker & Eckel, nd). They hold that art and technology are diametrically opposed since for art to be authentic since it should be a product of human

Monday, September 23, 2019

Marketing professional practice 300 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Marketing professional practice 300 - Essay Example Schools which lack funding or government support usually welcome these marketing efforts (Robert Wood Johnson Foundation 2008). In in-school marketing, a consistent and strong proposition regarding healthy eating can be integrated through informative contests; distribution of educational materials; correspondence with canteens or cafeterias; and feeding programs. While in-school marketing may not need any demand-specific strategy, in marginal sectors, there is an urgency to do so. It is presumed that low income families represent the marginal sectors of the community therefore nutritious food intake appear unreasonably expensive for them (Department of Human Services n.d.). A very important objective in this outreach is to eliminate such mindset. To achieve this, the organization can instead endorse a dietary scheme which involves nutritious but affordable food and beverages for regulated daily food consumption. An example of an exact promotional strategy is the FoodCent$ program sponsored by an Australian nonprofit (Department of Human Services n.d.). The entire program may be implemented for at least three years or more when necessary. There can be no doubt to the efficacy and conventionality of television advertising as a method of promoting a product, service, or image. It sends a message to a massive or target-specific audience within seconds. The same principle is true when promoting the cause of the charity. The television advertisement should contain the advocacy in the most creative but informative structure. With local or international child celebrities and hit characters, the organization could use television endorsers to promote it. Then, the ad should be slated during children-viewing periods, that is, within children programs. Media networks can supply the said information since they develop a programming schedule designed for different

Sunday, September 22, 2019

Microbiology Study Guide Chapter Essay Example for Free

Microbiology Study Guide Chapter Essay Food Production 1. Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, 2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae B. Oxygen production C. Nitrogen Fixation D. Decomposition E. Bioremediation F. Antibiotics G. Biotechnology and research H. Normal flora I. Pathogens (malaria parasite, E. coli, Salmonella, Clostridium) IV. The Origin of Microorganisms A. Spontaneous Generation revisited 1. Francesco Redi 2. Lazzaro Spallazani 3. Louis Pasteur 4. John Tyndall B. If not Spontaneous Generation, then what? 1. Ferdinand Cohn 2. Robert Koch Chapter 3: Microscopy Staining I. What can we see with a microscope? A. Micrometer B. Nanometer II. History of Microscopy A. Robert Hooke B. Anton van Leeuwenhoek III. Principles of Microscopy A. Total Magnification B. Resolution/Resolving power 1. Wavelength 2. Numerical aperture C. Refraction/Refractive index D. Contrast IV. Light Microscope /Bright field Microscope A. Parts and functions 1. Oculars 2. Objectives/Revolving nosepiece 3. Stage 4. Condenser Iris diaphragm 5. Adjustment knobs- Course, fine, condenser and stage B. Principles of electron microscopy (transmission and scanning electron microscopes). V. Staining Techniques A. Smear Preparation B. Types of dyes – basic, acidic C. Types of Staining Procedures 1. Simple staining 2. Positive and Negative staining 3. Differential staining a. Gram stain b. Acid-fast stain 4. Structural stains a. Capsule stain b. Endospore stain c. Flagella stain Lecture Chapter 3: Prokaryotic Cell I. Shape: A. Coccus B. Bacillus (rod) C. Coccobacillus D. Vibrio E. Spirillum F. Spirochete II. Arrangements: A. For cocci: 1. Chains or Streptococci arrangement 2. Packets (tetrads (4 cells) or 8 cells (Sarcinae)) 3. Clusters or Staphylococci arrangement B. For bacilli- Single, irregular, stacked or chained rods III. External Extensions A. Flagella in Gram negative bacteria 1. Components – Basal body, Hook, Filament 2. Arrangement – (Mono, Lopho, Amphi or Peri) trichous 3. Movement – Chemotaxis, Phototaxis, Aerotaxis, Magnetotaxis B. Axial filaments (endoflagella) C. Attachment pili (Fimbriae) D. Sex pilus IV. Layers/Coverings A. Glycocalyx – Capsule, Slime layer B. Cell Wall – Peptidoglycan, NAG and NAM 1. Gram positive- Teichoic- (TA) and lipoteichoic acids (LTA) 2. Gram negative- outer membrane made of endotoxin -Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), periplasm 3. No cell wall- Mycoplasma C. Cytoplasmic (cell) membrane 1. Components – Phospholipid bilayer, Fluid Mosaic model 2. Passive transport a. Simple diffusion b. Osmosis 1)Â  Hypertonic 2)Â  Hypotonic 3)Â  Isotonic c. Facilitated diffusion 3. Active transport a. Major Facilitator family transporters –use proton motive force b. ABC transporters- use ATP as energy c. Group translocation 4. Energy production a. Electron Transport chain b. Proton Motive Force V. Internal Structures A. DNA as a Single chromosome in a Nucleoid region B. Plasmids and transfer of plasmids (conjugation) C. Ribosomes D. Storage Granules – Glycogen, Volutin, Poly-? -hydroxybutyrate, sulfur E. Gas vacuoles (vesicles) F. Endospores 1. Formation of Endospore-sporulation a. Core – Dipicolonic acid + Ca2+, DNA enzymes b. Core Wall Cortex – peptidoglycan + muramic lactam c. Spore coat – keratin-like protein 2. Germination – Return to Vegetative State 3. Location – terminal, lateral, central

Saturday, September 21, 2019

Naked Eye Single Tube Osmotic Fragility Test

Naked Eye Single Tube Osmotic Fragility Test The effectiveness of one tube osmotic fragility screening in detecting BTT was first introduced by Kattamis C. in 1981.(56) NESTROFT is the rapid simple and cost effective screening test. 2.15.1 Principle The principle of NESTROFT is based on the limit of hypotonicity that the red cell can withstand. There is a pronounced decrease in osmotic fragility of red cells in ÃŽÂ ²-thalassemia(57) Cells with a decreased surface/volume ratio, have a limited capacity to expand in low osmolarity solutions and lyse (rupture) at a higher concentration of sodium chloride than do normal biconcave red cells. Therefore, thalassaemic cells that are hypochromic and fLatter have a greater capacity to expand and thus have decreased osmotic fragility. (58) 2.15.2 Clinical Implications The different saline concentration is used in NESTROFT test to detect spherocytosis and BTT. Positive test is due to reduced osmotic fragility of red cells at 0.36% buffered saline. Manglani M et al in 1997 studied 165 cases (with MCV Recent published data has shown that the NSTROFT can be a very useful screening tool for ÃŽÂ ²-thalassemia Trait. (5, 63-66) Different studies show that NESTROFT with 0.36% saline could detect 96-100% of heterozygotes with ÃŽÂ ²-thalassemia. Study published in Indian J Pathol Microbiol, 2002 concludes NSTROFT to be 92.5% sensitive and 95.2% specific for screening of red cell microcytosis.(67) The test proves to be simple, cheap, easy to perform and adaptable for mass screening coming close to an ideal screening test. According to a recent study conducted at PNS Shifa Hospital Karachi, NESTROFT has a Positive Predictive Value of 85.38% and Negative Predictive Value of 97.66%, this correlates to international published data. The diagnostic accuracy was 94.6 % (63) NESTROFT done with 0.36 % buffered saline solution provides more accurate results compared to the other concentrations tested.(5) Routine use of haematological data from automated cell counters may complement the result s of the NSTROFT.(64) 2.16 Supravital Stains Supravital stains are a group of special stains for demonstration of intracellular inclusions in the living tissues. Common supravital stains used are methylene blue, new methylene blue, brilliant cresyl blue (BCB), methyl violet, crystal violet and azure B. Supravital stains in thalassemia are done for the demonstration of reticulocytes and Hb H inclusions as and when indicated. In thalassaemia carrier screening reticulocyte count does not have a diagnostic value. However in the detection of ÃŽÂ ±-thalassaemia, especially Hb H disease, the brilliant cresyl blue stain will detect the characteristic Hb H inclusion bodies. Supravital stains (brilliant cresyl blue or new-methylene blue) are able to stain residual mRNA in immature red blood cells. There are now several automated electronic cell counters able to perform a reticulocyte count using specific RNA staining.(68) Reticulocyte numbers and maturation levels have been studied in different haemoglobinopathies and the results have been correlated with the degree of ineffective erythropoiesis. Laura C. et al in 2003 studied 219 samples from patients with Sickle Beta-thalassemia (n=7), HbSC disease (n=11), BTT (n=33) and IDA (n=47) and non-anaemic individuals(n=60). They found patients with HbS trait (0.83%), IDA (1.18%) and BTT (1.53%) showed Reticulocyte parameters similar to non-anaemic group (1.18%). A non-responsive bone marrow does not release reticulocytes in sufficient numbers to compensate for the degree anaemia. The authors concluded that the absolute number and immaturity fraction were higher in BTT than normal individuals, but without statistical significance.(69) 2.17 Haemoglobin Electrophoresis Hemoglobin electrophoresis (also called Hgb electrophoresis), is a test that measures the different types of hemoglobin in the blood. The method used is called electrophoresis, a process that causes movement of particles in an electric field, resulting in formation of bands that separate toward one end or the other in the field. 2.17.1 Types of Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis) is a common type of electrophoresis used for analyzing proteins, which separates proteins according to their size. The SDS is a protein denaturing detergent that causes unfolding of protein molecule. The detergent binds to the polypeptide in a 1:1 ratio with each segment of the protein to give it a charge. The movement of protein polypeptides through the gel occurs at different rates depending on size. Agarose Gels Agarose gels electrophoresis is used for separation of RNA and DNA molecules. Like SDS-PAGE, this separates the molecules based on charge and size. DNA molecules are negatively charged, so they move through the gel quickly depending on size. Smaller DNA fragments move more quickly than larger ones due to friction resistance. Electrofocusing Electrofocusing analyze the charge and pH values of proteins. A container is filled with a gel solution that has an increasing pH gradient. The amino acids that form polypeptides have different acidic or basic charges. The protein travels through the gel, obtaining or losing protons depending on its charge. As the protein particle moves through the gel, it eventually becomes neutral and gets stuck in an isoelectric position. Capillary Capillary electrophoresis is a method similar to SDS-PAGE. It separates molecules based on their charge and mass. Molecules are placed in rows called capillaries filled with conductive, electrolyte fLuid. The analytes move in a speed relative to their charge and mass. This method is an older technique introduced in the 1960s. SDS-PAGE is usually preferred in labs. Native Gels Native gels are similar to SDS-PAGE, except the detergent (SDS) is not used to denature proteins. Native gels are only able to separate proteins up to 2,000 kDa in size. Because the proteins are left folded, the dyes used are also different than SDS-PAGE. Hemoglobin electrophoresis is the method for identification and quantification of variant Hbs. Electrophoretic methods have been developed that allow for separation at alkaline pH 8.4 on cellulose acetate and at acidic pH 6.2 on agarose gels. These provide a clear background, allowing for quantification of the Hb present by densitometric scanning.(47) Cellulose acetate electrophoresis may be used for qualitative identification of variants, but also with elution for quantitation of the haemoglobins, A2, A, S, D, Lepore, ÃŽÂ ±-chain variants, Hb H and Hb Barts. Agarose gel electrophoresis is not a satisfactory screening technique because it cannot distinguish many abnormal haemoglobins from Hb A. However it can separate the C group into three fractions: HbC, O-Arab, and Hb E plus HbA2. The method can also distinguish Hb S from Hb D, Hb F from Hb A, Hbs Little Rock, Rainier and Bethesda from Hb A, and Hb H from Hb I. (68) The diagnosis of BTT relies on an accurate estimation of HbA2 levels.(69) Raised HbA2 level (>3.5%) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of BTT. Subjects found to be positive in preliminary screening tests by Red cell indices, DFs and NESTROFT are confirmed for thalassemic carrier status by various methods such as cellulose acetate electrophoresis, microcolumn chromatography, capillary isoelectrofocussing and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). Subjects with HbA2 levels of 3.5% and above are considered to have BTT. However precautions have to be taken when HbA2 levels fall between 3.3 and 3.7%. In such cases it is recommended to repeat the assay to rule out technical error or treat the patient for IDA before the analysis is repeated.(60) According to the Thalassemia working party of BCSH General haematology Task force both electrophoresis and elution from cellulose acetate or microcolumn chromatography are recommended. They suggested that precision and accuracy of automated scanning densitometry was inadequate for HbA2 estimation. (70) 2.18 Isoelectric focusing (IEF) IEF is another popular method used by laboratories that have a large number of specimens or very small sample volumes that perform newborn screening. This electrophoretic method utilizes carrier ampholytes, small proteins that are able to carry both current and pH (Zwitterions). When the current is applied to the support medium, the ampholytes will gradually establish a pH gradient throughout the gel (for example, a pH range of 6 to 8 for Hb analysis). IEF gives better separation of Hb variants that show similar mobilities on alkaline electrophoresis, which are much sharper. Hb variants such as Hb-Malmo, show separation from HbA which is not seen on alkaline electrophoresis. Minor bands such as HbH, Hb-Barts and Delta chain variants are easily seen.(71) Figure 2.6 Examples of many hemoglobin variants and their migration patterns on Isoelectric focusing. 2.19 Capillary isoelectric focusing (CIF) CIF is a useful analytical technique for characterization of protein mixtures and determination of protein isoelectric points. It is particularly useful in separation of protein glycoforms, characterizing protein microheterogeneity, and resolution of charge variants. The capillary focusing process is analogous to conventional isoelectric focusing in gels, while the requirement for zone mobilization is unique to the capillary format with on-tube detection. A variety of mobilization methods have been described, and the selection of the mobilization method for a particular application depends on the capillary type, the instrument configuration, and the type of proteins to be analyzed. Capillary IEF is generally successful for proteins with a molecular weight up to about 150,000 that exhibit good solubility in aqueous buffers, but may be unsatisfactory for large or hydrophobic proteins.(72) 2.20 Globin chain electrophoresis It is an ancillary procedure in which haemoglobin lysate with mercaptoethanol and 8mol/L Urea to dissociate the globin chain is used. It is run both at alkaline and acid pH. It gives additional information on haemoglobin variants that have similar mobilities by other methods.(71) Globin chain electrophoresis is run at both alkaline and acid pH because some hemoglobin variants show slight differences in mobility at the two pHs. This method often gives additional information on hemoglobin variants that have similar mobilities by other methods. In confusing cases, this method may be useful to document the presence of both an ÃŽÂ ± and a ÃŽÂ ² chain variant Examples of different hemoglobin variants on globin chain electrophoresis are shown in Figure 2.6. (www.cap.org/apps/docs/cap_press/hemoglobinatlas_intro.pdf) Figure 2.7.Examples of hemoglobin variants on both acid (pH 6.2) and alkaline (pH 8.9) globin chain electrophoresis. Source: Adopted from hemoglobin atlas. (www.cap.org/apps/docs/cap_press/hemoglobinatlas_intro.pdf) 2.21 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) HPLC is a method that has been available for many years. Cation-exchange HPLC is emerging as the method of choice for the initial screening of Hb variants.(56) Run lengths have been shortened from more than 20mins to 6 to 7mins. These instruments are approved by U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the measurements of HbS, A2 and F. These instruments generally utilize a weak cation exchange column. Gradually increasing the ionic strength of the eluting solution causes the Hb protein to come off the column at a particular retention time. This method has a advantage that HbC does not coelute with HbA2, however HbE and HbO-Arab still coelute with HbA2 with this method.(71) 2.22 DNA Analysis The DNA analysis is gold standard for detection of carrier state of ÃŽÂ ²-thalassemia. The prenatal diagnosis of affected couple should be carried out to prevent the birth of thalassemic child by selective abortion of affected foetuses. It is essential to characterize the DNA mutations of the parents for prenatal diagnosis of affected couple. The methods available to study DNA mutations are allele specific oligonucleotide (ASO) screening, (73) reverse dot blot, and restriction endonuclease allele recognition.(74) The ASO method is for detection point mutations, nucleotide insertion or deletion in genomic DNA. In this method ASO probes of 18-20 per sequence are used. DNA is denatured and dot blotted on to a nylon membrane and then hybridized to different probes. In reverse dot blot probes are attached to the membrane and DNA hybridizes with dot corresponding to the mutation. A recent method is amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) technique in which specific primers against normal and mutant sequences are used.(60) More than 150 mutations causing beta-thalassemia have been reported from different parts of the world.(74) Studies conducted in Pakistan show the five most common mutations are IVS1-5 (G-C), IVS1-1 (G-T), Fr 41-42 (-TTCT) Fr 8-9 (+G) and deletion 619 bp.(75) Ahmed et al found that there are important ethnic and regional differences in the prevalence of mutations. The five most common mutations, IVSI-5 (G-C) (37.3%), Fr 8-9 (+G) (25.9%), del 619 (7.0%), Fr 41-42 (-TTCT) (6.7%) and IVSI-1 (G-T) (5.4%), constitute 82.3% of the total. Fr 8-9 (+G) is the most common mutation in Northern Pakistan (41.3%), whereas IVSI-5 (G-C) is the most frequent mutation in Southern Pakistan (52.2%). (76) 2.23 Prenatal Diagnosis The availability of prenatal diagnosis added a new option to couples at risk for major haemoglobinopathy, leading to a significant change in the effectiveness of screening and counseling in hemoglobinopathy prevention. Prenatal diagnosis of both ÃŽÂ ±- and ÃŽÂ ²-thalassemia was carried out for the first time in the 1970s using globin chains synthesis analysis in fetal blood, obtained by fetoscopy or placental aspiration around the nineteenth week of gestation. The advent of DNA analysis and the introduction of chorionic villi sampling resulted in a notable improvement in prenatal diagnosis because it could be performed generally at 10 to 12 weeks of gestation. Fetal DNA can be obtained also from aminocytes at 15 to 17 weeks of pregnancy. The reported risk of fetal loss with this procedure ranges from 0.5 to 4.5%. After sampling, fetal DNA analysis is performed by the PCR-based methods mentioned for carrier detection procedures. In general, the mutation to be detected in the fet us is first identified in the parents. The results of DNA analysis are very accurate, but misdiagnosis may occur for several reasons (failure to amplify the target DNA fragment, mispaternity, maternal contamination, and sample exchange). However, the risk of misdiagnosis can be significantly reduced using a number of precautionary measures, such as fetal DNA analysis for selected polymorphic markers.(35) Fetal cells, known to be present in the maternal circulation, represent an attractive, noninvasive approach to prenatal diagnosis. Fetal cells, immunological isolated for their low purity, can only be used for prenatal diagnosis of ÃŽÂ ²-thalassemia in women whose partners carry a different mutation. Recently, this problem has been overcome by development of a technique able to isolate single fetal erythroblasts from maternal blood by microscopic micromanipulation, making possible the analysis of both fetal genes in a single cell. However, this procedure is associated with several technical and biological problems and it is not widely applicable.(35) The discovery of free fetal DNA in maternal plasma provided the basis for developing another method for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. However, because free maternal DNA is also present, the application to prenatal diagnosis of thalassemias would be possible only to exclude paternally derived pathologic alleles different from the mot hers mutation.(35) The advent of DNA amplification has made it possible to define the geneotype of a single cell biopsied from cleaving embryos (preimplantation diagnosis) and to analyze the polar body obtained during the maturation of the oocyte (preconceptional diagnosis). These procedures avoid the need to terminate affected pregnancies and permit the transfer of only healthy embryos established from in vitro fertilization. Successful experiences in many couples with this approach have been reported in hemoglobinopathies. However, preimplantation genetic diagnosis is a technically challenging, intensive procedure, which requires the close collaboration of a team of specialists. (35) To date, programmes for ÃŽÂ ²-thalassemia prevention based on carrier screening, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis are on-going in several areas at risk in Mediterranean countries, with a marked decline in the incidence of thalassemia major. Effective preventive programs have also been established in countries such as United Kingdom, where thalassemia is a rare disorder that affects diverse minority ethnic groups. Special attention should be given in these programmes to the different religious and social issues and to the different attitude towards prenatal diagnosis of the various ethnic minorities. In case the mutations are not identified linkage studies using restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) or globin chain synthesis by cord blood sampling are the other options used for prenatal diagnosis. (60) In 1999, Maheshwari M and colleagues suggested fLow chart for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia. (Figure 2.7) In 1994 the thalassemia working party of British Society of Hematology suggested guidelines for investigation of the ÃŽÂ ± and /ÃŽÂ ² thalassaemia traits. (Figure 2.8) Figure 2.8. FLow chart for carrier detection and prenatal diagnosis of thalassemia. Source: Adopted from Maheshwari M, Arora S, Kabra M, Menon PSN. Carrier screening and prenatal Diagnosis of Beta-thalassemia. Indian Pediatr 1999; 36: 1119-1125. Figure 2.9. FLow chart for thalassemia carrier detection suspected on red cell indices Source: adopted from Guidelines for investigation of the ÃŽÂ ± and /ÃŽÂ ² thalassaemia traits, The Thalassaemia Working Party of the BCSH General Haematology Task Force J Clin Pathol 1994;47:289-295 Prevention is better than cure. It is important to develop prevention programmes for thalassemia prevention where there is high frequency, to avoid fatalities from untreated thalassaemia cases, the expense and difficulty of providing optimum treatment for patients which creates a burden on patients, families and national health services. Thalassaemia patients may be left untreated (indeed, they often die without a diagnosis) or grossly under-treated. At the same time, quality of treatment is firmly linked to both survival rates and quality of life. (Thalassemia International Federation, 2003). The countries where prevention programmes are effective resulting in increased survival of thalassemia major patients in comparison to countries where preventive strategies do not exist. (Figure 2.6) Graph A Graph B Figure 2.10. Graph A: Age distribution of thalassemics in a country without prevention Patients are mostly infants (non-prevention) and children (early deaths) Graph B: Age distribution of thalassemics in a country with full prevention treatment. There is gap in early years with patients mostly in their mid-twenties. Source: Adopted from Prevention of thalassemia other hemoglobinopathies, Thalassaemia International Federation, 2003.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Importance Of Explicit Knowledge Information Technology Essay

Importance Of Explicit Knowledge Information Technology Essay This document deals about the importance of Explicit Knowledge in the organizations. Most of the knowledge occurs in the organizations in the form of tacit knowledge. Here we deal with how to transform the tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. The accumulation, storage and reuse of the explicit knowledge. Here we are talking about the barriers in the acquiring of explicit knowledge. The use of technology for the purpose of accumulation, storing and reuse of knowledge is also discussed. Todays business environment knowledge is emerged as a driving force in the organization. The knowledge workers and their ability are very important (LI , BRAKE,CHAMPION ,FULLER,GABEL AND HATCHER-BUSCH 2009 : 347). Recent studies show that organizations success depends on its ability to learn and adapt to particular situation. The unique performance in the organization is the key to outperform their competitor.(LI , BRAKE,CHAMPION ,FULLER,GABEL AND HATCHER-BUSCH 2009 : 348). In organization there are mainly two types of knowledge exist tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge .Scholars noticed that most part of human knowledge is present in the form of tacit knowledge (UNGAN (2006):403) . Its in the minds of the people. Explicit Knowledge is the knowledge that is expressed and documented. The documented and codified knowledge will have a structure and is easily accessed by others. (STOVER 2004 : 164).To create true knowledge it is necessary to see tacit and explicit knowledge as complem entary and both are needed to knowledge creation. IMPORTANCE OF EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE: Tacit knowledge is something that is acquired by individuals experience in particular area. It help him to find solution for problems faster than his colleagues It is acquired through once experience and experiment in particular field (STOVER 2004 : 165). Articulating the tacit knowledge, making tacit knowledge explicit is very important in the perspective of the organization (STOVER 2004 : 165).Explicit knowledge is described in structured language. It is mainly more technical data this knowledge is gained mostly through formal education or by structured study .This will help organizations to preserve their huge knowledge capital from losing. When employees leave organization they take with them the huge amount of knowledge. (STOVER 2004 : 165). Valuable Knowledge will be wasted if organizations fails to collect , standardize and store and share the knowledge. The KM scholars believes that the articulation of knowledge helps the organization and individuals to access the knowledge in a cost effective way. Explicit knowledge is carefully organized and stored in data bases in priority basis .It should be accessible with high quality , fast and easily. The explicit knowledge can be reused for sole problems of similar kind (SMITH 2001 : 315).For instance Anderson consulting created methods to codify store and reuse explicit knowledge. They used a people to document approach. It took information from person who developed it and made independent to its developer. All the sensitive information is removed and it can be used in the same similar context (SMITH 2001 : 315).When knowledge is shared among the members of the organization , it can be viewed as organizational history and experience (BONTIS 1998 : 64). In small companies they manage their knowledge is by training the new employees. Its a costly process. Thats where the importance of comput er based learning comes. Transformation of tacit to explicit knowledge is important here (WICKERT AND HARSCHEL 2001:330). If a expert employee got sick or left the organization the expertise of that employee is not available for a fixed amount of time or permanently (WICKERT AND HARSCHEL 2001:331). In job market skilled and experienced workers are getting retired. New young workers are replacing them . So there is a high demand for sharing of experience . This can be possible by the articulation of tacit knowledge they have gained from their experience (JACKSON 2010:915). EXPLICIT KNOWLEDGE CREATION EXPLAINED IN S.E.C.I AND BA MODEL In S.E.C.I model externalization phase deals with the transformation of tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. For knowledge transformation they use different methods. Some of the methods are storytelling , narrative and using some IT medias like emails, chat rooms etc. The knowledge should be structured so as it should provide accessible and reusable. Externalization should be structured then the knowledge can be made sensible and available for potential users(JACKSON 2010:911).Top management can influence the externalization of knowledge. They can encourage the teams to develop their own metaphor for what they should do (RICHTNER AND AHLSTROM 2010:1020).The creation of concept of a new product is the example of externalization. In combination phase the extracted knowledge is standardized and systematic procedures to combine the knowledge using computer database or an expert system. The internalization deals with the transformation of explicit knowledge again to tacit knowledge by t he use of stored explicit knowledge.(STOVER 2004 : 165). The meaning of Ba is place . Ba does not mean only the physical space . It is the concept of interaction . For the creation of knowledge a space is necessary. This space may be a physical one or a virtual like online one. There are four types of Ba . Among that dialoguing ba deals with the face to face interaction . It is the space where individuals share knowledge. The process of tacit to explicit knowledge conversion happens here. Dialoguing ba is more structured than the previous ba . In systematic ba the collected knowledge is combined to a more structured form. The use of information technology like online networks , group ware etc contribute to systemizing ba .The excersiing ba where the stored knowledge is shared through virtual media or print etc. The healthy interaction between all these ba can amblify the knowledge creation ( Nonaka,I.Toyama,R and Konno,N.(2000) :16-17). BARRIERS IN KNOWLEDGE ARTICULATION: Converting tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge is a tedious job. As we said tacit knowledge is embedded in the minds of the individuals. This make it difficult to formalize and express. There are some personal issues in articulating the knowledge. Individuals believe that articulating the knowledge one may lose his competitive advantage. Some people believe their knowledge is not worth expressing . Some KM scholars believe that language barriers also hinder the transformation of tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. (STOVER 2004: 166) The culture of the organization also may be a factor that hinders knowledge generation and sharing in the organization. There may be political issues between the departments that prevent the transfer of knowledge. Sharing culture is very important before implementing any strategies in any organization (Syed-Ikhsan and Rowland 2004 : 100). Knowledge transfer requires groups or individuals to work together and share their expertise and knowledge. The knowledge transfer does not occur unless group or individuals shows a co-operate behavior(SYED-IKHSAN AND ROWLAND 2004 : 96). Individualism is one of the major factors that hinder the creation and transfer of knowledge in any organization ( Syed-Ikhsan and Rowland 2004 : 100). For the sharing of knowledge there should be trust among the employees. In project team leadership style also effect the process of knowledge sharing(MA,QI AND WANG 2008:101).The authoritarian style leaders give no chance for the team members to participate and share knowledge. While the democratic style leaders encourages team members to interact and share knowledge (MA,QI AND WANG 2008:101).Another factor that hinders the knowledge sharing in the public organization is limited access to the resources (Syed-Ikhsan and Rowland 2004 : 100).Time is one of the major factors that inhibits the process of a rticulating the tacit knowledge. Most of the employees have a little time for articulating their knowledge. Patrick and Lee done research and they contradicted the views of Richard and Kabjian who says the fear of losing superiority and reward system are inhibitors of knowledge sharing. They also argues that the size of the company is not a problem in knowledge transferring (FONG LEE 2009:304) Some KM scholars like Swartz and Marwick argues technology is unable to provide a complete solution for knowledge capture . At many instance the experts find it is very difficult to trigger a knowledge person by query unless they are put into problem situation (JACKSON 2010 :911). Researchers found that the fear of not being adequately rewarded is the one of the barrier for the knowledge sharing. CAPTURING KNOWLEDGE: As we said conversion of tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge is difficult. There are several ways in which tacit knowledge can be made explicit. The formal ways of interviewing is a useful method. In interviews participants are asked structured questions. This format of interview should be made such that they shouldnt feel that the articulation is happening (STOVER 2004 : 166-167).The level of details available in documentation depends on the purpose of documentation (UNGAN 2006 : 404).For conversion of tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge the interviewer should accompany the knowledge worker in his process. In between the knowledge can be articulated. For this formal language is used (UNGAN 2006:407) . Individuals poses high level of tacit knowledge . If organizations fail to track it then it cannot be made explicit and will not reach its fullest potential (BONTIS 1998:66). The role of knowledge managers is very important. He can encourage the employees to share their knowledge and make them explicit (STOVER 2004 : 166-167). The knowledge management is riskier unless the organizations take initiatives and reward system for sharing of knowledge (SMITH 2001 : 312). For instance Buckman Laboratories recognizes their knowledge in their annual conference. Lotus one of the divisions of IBM evaluates the customer support workers on the basis of their knowledge sharing activities (BARTOL AND SRIVASTTAVA 2002 : 64). Xerox developed a system called Eureka which is meant for the maintenance engineers to share their ideas and experience .Once these ideas are posted they are verified and made available for service engineers all over the world. This help the Xerox in saving $100 million . Companies like Cap Gemini Ernst Young makes merit decision based on the knowledge sharing activity of its employees .In these companies the people who are posting ideas are evaluat ed and then posted into the knowledge contribution database(BARTOL AND SRIVASTTAVA 2002:67). Technology is important in collecting and codifying knowledge. There should be a strong framework for the systematic storing of knowledge. IT itself cannot helps something to get out of someones head. It is the role of managers to find out what is important for the organization . Some KM theorist like Pawar doubts the centralization of knowledge. He states that centralization of knowledge will reduce the cost of sharing the knowledge . He agrees the role of role of technology plays in the acquiring, storing and structured distribution of knowledge . Combining the intellectual property with IS will help the individual intellectual property to the group property (BONTIS 1998:66).KM combined with It will support the data mining and sharing of explicit knowledge (WICKERT AND HARSCHEL 2001 :333).Internet is one of the major repository of explicit knowledge(WICKERT AND HARSCHEL 2001 : 335). Knowledge exchange protocols can be used in transferring tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge. SOAP protocol which is used by physicians is one of the examples. This protocol helps to structure clinician patient conversation and helps to share issues by understanding the physicians thinking. This also helps in documentation of patient medical record (HERSCHEL,NEMATI AND STEIGER 2001:107).New generation tools such as wikis , blogs ,social networking etc. helps a greater collaboration in work place. This will solve some of the problems associated with knowledge capturing. These forms even can accommodate videos , images etc. It can be used to capture informal indicates of tacit knowledge (BARTOL AND SRIVASTTAVA 2002:64).This videos and images can then be summarized based on the content . They can be linked to topics of relevance and stored. These can be accessed through portals later (COAKES 2006:583). Mobile technology can be used for the capture of knowledge .In organizations there will be mobile workers will be advantaged by these technology. The challenge is how to incorporate the this knowledge to main memory. Information technology can be used as a powerful tool. It can be transformed from the role of storing and retrieving data to improve access to knowledge by removing the spatial obstacles of knowledge transfer. IT has got a ability to spread knowledge across different departments of the organizations (TOHIDINIA AND MOSAKHANI 2010 : 615). CONCLUSION: For any organization the Knowledge is very important. The conversion of Tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge is very risky process. There are the barriers like individualism, politics inside the organizational departments. The factor of trust plays a major role in conversion of knowledge . For some small companies the cost of knowledge sharing is not affordable. Technology can play a major role in the tacit to explicit knowledge transfer. There are new generation technologies that can be used for the this purpose. The reward system is one factor that will encourage knowledge transfer. The role of the management in promoting the knowledge conversion is very important . The uniqueness of knowledge the organization owns will brig the organization the competitive advantage.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Bread Givers :: essays research papers fc

Clashing of Wills Conflict between generations is a common them to many novels. In the novel"Bread Givers", by Anzia Yezierksa, the clashing of wills of two generations is one major theme. We see clashes through culture, generations, community, religion,generations, and many others. The most prominent clash of wills is that of the protagonist Sara with her father Moisha or Reb Smolinsky. Some may say that these two characters clash because of their differences. Others might say that it their similarities that cause the clash between them both. It seems that it is a combination of their similarities and their differences that cause their clash and, in fact, binds them closer than any of the other characters. At the beginning of the novel we learn that Sara’s father has nick named her blood and iron recognizing the fact that she has a strong will. It is Sara’s strong will that causes the most of the conflict with her and her father. Sara gets her strong will and drive from her father. She is not like her sisters who follow the cultural expectations of early marriage, but she, instead, has greater ambition for her life. Sara plans to get an education which is not in her fathers plan for her life. Reb wants Sara to marry like her other sisters, and live a "holy" life according to the Torah. Sara’s will to educate herself, and Reb’s will to have Sara married is what causes the conflict in their relationship. Like Sara’s blood and iron will, Reb also is driven for his daughters to live their life according to the Torah. It is the strong will of these two characters that cause their connection. While Reb is bound to the laws and traditions of the Torah, Sara is bound to the drive to be educated or make herself a better, more successful person. One incident that exemplifies the strong will of both these characters is found at the beginning of the novel. The rent collector for the landlord comes to the apartment to collect rent, but Reb does not have the money. The two argue and Reb finally hits the collector, who is Jewish, and shouts, "I’ll teach you respect for the Holy Torah" (p. 18). Reb is then taken off to jail for assault. Then Sara decides since none of her sisters are bringing in enough money, that she would go out and make some.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

The Martian Chronicles Essay -- essays research papers

The Martian Chronicles   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Martian Chronicles, by Ray Bradbury, is a science-fiction book and was written in 1946. This major work by Bradbury is a collection of short stories relating to Mars or Martians. Bradbury had a clear vision of the Mars in which these stories are set. His vision was one of a fantasy world from the Martians point of view. In this work, the humans from Earth are the aliens from outer space. Bradbury has won many awards including the O. Henry Memorial Award, the Benjamin Franklin Award, the Aviation-Space Writers Association Award, the World Fantasy Award for lifetime achievement, and the Grand Master Award from the Science Fiction Writers of America. Bradbury supported his awards with The Martian Chronicles, keeping with the theme of giving his readers something to enjoy. His thoroughness in his writing keeps the reader wanting more.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Martian Chronicles is a collection of 19 short stories about Mars and the Martians. He opens the book with a very short story, 'Rocket Summer';. 'Rocket Summer'; is a great exaggeration of how hot it becomes within a few miles radius of a rocket launch. Around this certain rocket, it was winter. As soon as the rocket's booster ignited, all of the snow within the vicinity melted. 'The snow dissolved and showed last summer's ancient green lawns.';. Bradbury knew when he wrote this that a weather change that dramatic would never happen from a single rocket, it was simply to grab the attention of the reader.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  In 'The Third Expedition';, the sixth short-story in The Martian Chronicles, Bradbury uses his description of America on Mars to give a setting and tone for the story. He suggested that by 1950, America had already started to vanish. By the time any astronaut reached Mars, the America the astronaut knew would be greatly different than that of America in 1950. Bradbury was setting Mars equal to small-town life on Earth. 'The rocket landed on a lawn of green grass. Outside, upon this lawn, stood an iron deer. Further up on the green stood a tall brown Victorian house, quiet in the sunlight, all covered with scrolls and rococo, its windows made of blue and pink and yellow and green colored glass.'; If just this quote had been read, one would have thought that the rocket landed on Earth. Bradbury, using his wonde... ...n anyone's 'should read'; list. It is a great example of science-fiction from the 1950's. Although people today may want a newer and fresher look at aliens and outer space, Bradbury provides a wonderful compilation of stories that could have been passed off as recently written. His ideas were so new to anyone at the time that we, in the year 2000, look at them as marvelous ideas that we can agree with, in theory, today. The Martian Chronicles meets the criteria of a great literary work because it has all of the characteristics of being one. First, there is a well organized and thought out plot to the story. Even though there are a number of short stories, they can all be read together as one collection on the same subject. Secondly, if you were to take out one of the stories to read by itself, one would never know it came from a book of stories. That is something that many authors have a hard time doing. Finally, Bradbury has built a reputation to be a great writer. This work doe s not let down on his reputation. Truly, anyone that is the least bit interested in science-fiction should really give this compilation a read. This book should really be on everyone's 'should read'; list.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Compative Study on Nokia and Samsung

PROJECT REPORT ON COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN NOKIA AND SAMSUNG FOR YOUTH GENERATION Submitted By Sathya priya . V TABLE OF CONTENT CHAPTER| CONTENTS | PAGE. NO| 1| INTRODUCTION 1. 1. Overview of Industry as a whole 1. 2. Nokia- Profile of the Organization 1. 3 Samsung –Profile of the Organization | | 2 | 2. 1. Review of literature2. 2 . Significance2. 3. Managerial usefulness of the study2. 4. Comparative features of the study2. 5. Objectives2. 6. Scope of the Study2. 7. Limitation of the study| | 3. . 5. | REARCH METHODOLOGYDATA ANALYSIS FINDINGSANNEXUREAPPENDIX BIBLIOGRAPHY| | LIST OF TABLES S. NO| PARTICULARS| PAGE NO| 4. 1| Table showing Brands which are used by the respondents| | 4. 2| Table showing percentage of people who would like to buy a good brand mobile. | | 4. 3| Table showing brands which have the best battery backup. | | 4. 4| Table showing depicts the features that best suits brand. | | 4. 5| Table showing criteria on which Nokia is rated| | 4. 6| Table showin g criteria on which Sony Ericson is rated. | | 4. 7| Table showing criteria on which Micromax is rated. | 4. 8| Table showing criteria on which Black berry is rated. | | 4. 9| Table showing criteria on which Samsung is rated. | | 4. 10| Table showing Satisfaction level of service provided by Nokia service centre. | | 4. 11| Table showing depicts the features that best suits brand. | | 4. 12| Table showing the brands which have the better brand image. | | 4. 13| Table showing brands which have largest service network. | | 4. 14| Table showing satisfaction level of service provided by Samsung service center| | LIST OF CHART S. NO| PARTICULARS| PAGE NO| 4. | Chart showing brands which are used by the respondents| | 4. 2| Chart showing percentage of people who would like to buy a good brand mobile| | 4. 3| Chart showing shows brands which have the best battery backup. | | 4. 4| Chart showing the depicts the features that best suits brand. | | 4. 10| Chart showing Satisfaction level of s ervice provided by Nokia service centre. | | 4. 11| Chart showing depicts the features that best suits brand. | | 4. 12| Chart showing the brands which have the better brand image. | | 4. 13| Chart showing the brands which have the better brand image. | 4. 14| Chart showing satisfaction level of service provided by Samsung service center. | | CHAPTER-1- INTRODUCTION 1. 1OVERVIEW OF INDUSTRY AS A WHOLE In today's world, most people communicate through the use cellular phones. It's hard to believe that fifteen years ago cell phones were a rarity. Below is a history chronicling the dawn of the cell phone to its current state. 1843-Faraday exposed his great advances of nineteenth-century science and technology and his discoveries have had an incalculable effect on technical development toward cellular phone development. 1865 – Dr.Mahlon Loomis of Virginia, a dentist, may have been the first person to communicate through wireless via the atmosphere. Between 1866 and 1873 he transm itted telegraphic messages at a distance of 18 miles between the tops of Coshocton and Beorse Deer Mountains, Virginia. 1973 – Dr Martin Cooper is considered the inventor of the first portable handset. Dr. Cooper, former general manager for the systems division at Motorola, and the first person to make a call on a portable cellular phone. 1973 – Dr. Cooper set up a base station in New York with the first working prototype of a cellular telephone, the Motorola Dynastic.Mr. Cooper and Motorola took the phone technology to New York to show the public. 1977 – Cell phones go public. Public cell phone testing began. The city of Chicago was here the first trials began with 2000 customers and eventually other cell phone trials appeared in the Washington D. C. and Baltimore area. Japan began testing cellular phone service in 1979. 1988 – This year changed many of the technologies that had become typical in the past. The Cellular Technology Industry Association (CT IA) was developed to lay down practical goals for cellular phone providers.According to the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association, today there are more than 60 million customers with cellular phones, even though wireless service was just invented nearly 50 years ago. The cellular business was a $3 million market 25 years ago and has grown increasingly to close to a $30 billion per year industry 1. 2. NOKIA -PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION Nokia's history starts in 1865, Due to the European industrialization and the growing consumption of paper and cardboard Nokia soon became successful. Nokia’s Cable Work's Electronics department started to conduct research into semiconductor technology in the 1960? s.This was the beginning of Nokia’s journey into telecommunications. Nokia today is a world leader in mobile communications, driving the growth and sustainability of the broader mobility industry. Nokia connects people to each other and the information that matters t o them with easy-to-use and innovative products like mobile phones, devices and solutions for imaging, games, media and businesses. Nokia provides equipment, solutions and services for network operators and corporations. The company includes four business groups; Mobile Phones; Multimedia; Networks and Enterprise Solutions. In this project I will be focusing only on the mobile Phone usiness of Nokia in India. Nokia Corporation engages in the manufacture of mobile devices and mobile networks. It also provides equipment, solutions, and services for network operators, service providers, and corporations. The company operates in four segments: Mobile Phones, Multimedia, Enterprise Solutions, and Networks. The Mobile Phones segment offers mobile phones and devices based on GSM/EDGE, 3G/WCDMA, and CDMA cellular technologies. The Multimedia segment enables to create, access, and share multimedia in the form of advanced mobile multimedia computers and applications with connectivity over mul tiple technology standards.The Enterprise Solutions segment offers various products and solutions, including enterprise-grade mobile devices, underlying security infrastructure, software, and services for businesses and institutions. The Networks segment provides network infrastructure, communications, and networks service platforms, as well as professional services to operators and service providers. It focuses on the GSM family of radio technologies; networks with Internet Protocol and multi access capabilities; and professional services.The company also develops mobile WiMAX solutions. Nokia sells its products to operators, distributors, independent retailers, and corporate customers. It has its operations in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, China, the Asia-Pacific, North America, and Latin America. The company was founded in 1865 and is based in Espoo, Finland. Vision: Life Goes Mobile * Ten years ago, Nokia had a vision that seemed revolutionary for the times: Voice Goes Mobile ! As history shows, this vision became reality in an incredibly short amount of time. With more than 1. billion mobile phone subscriptions globally – and more mobile phones than fixed-line phones in use – shows that mobility has transformed the way people live their lives Business Mission: Connecting People * By connecting people, they help fulfill a fundamental human need for social connections and contact. Nokia builds bridges between people – both when they are far apart and face-to-face – and also bridges the gap between people and the information they need. As a market leader, the best contribution we can make to the global community is to conduct our business in a responsible way.This belief drives our commitment to creating ethically sound policies and principles that guide us in our work. Our Corporate Responsibility (CR) agenda is framed around the Nokia Values and is carried out in all aspects of our work to ensure customer satisfaction and resp ect, and also to assist us in embracing renewal and striving for achievement. By striving to include all members of Nokia's community in this process, we are demonstrating our overall commitment to the belief that responsibility is everybody's business.In this section you will find information about our strategy and approach, navigating the links above will give you more concrete information on our Corporate Responsibility activities. Vision Nokia‘s vision is a world where everyone is connected. With mobile subscriptions about to reach four billion, we are closer to our vision than anyone could have imagined just a few years ago. Our business benefits people, communities and the environment in new and exciting ways. As our business expands, so do our responsibilities. This sense of corporate responsibility (CR) is a fundamental part of who we are.Considering the wider impact of our actions is embedded in the Nokia Values, which guide our behavior, and in the Nokia Code of Cond uct, which gives guidance to our everyday work. Global challenges such as climate change and poverty concern us all. As a business that affects the lives of billions around the world, Nokia is in a key position to offer solutions to these challenges. Engaging you: For us, ‘engaging you’ incorporates the ‘customer satisfaction’ value and deals with engaging all our stakeholders, including employees, in what Nokia stands for in the world.Achieving together: ‘Achieving together’ is more than collaboration and partnership. As well as trust, it involves sharing, having the right mind-set and working in formal and informal networks. Passion for innovation: ‘Passion for innovation’ is based on a desire we have to live our dreams, to find courage and make the leap into the future through innovation in technology, ways of working and through understanding the world around us. Very human: Being ‘very human’ encompasses what we o ffer customers, how we do business and the impact of our actions and behavior on people and the environment.It is about being very human in the world – making things simple, respecting and caring. In short, our desire is to be a very human company. For more information on the Nokia Way and Nokia Values, go to Nokia as an employer within careers. 1. 3. SAMSUNG – PROFILE OF THE ORGANIZATION In 1938 the Samsung’s fonder byung –chull lee ser up a trade export company in Korea, selling fish vegetables and fruit to china . within a decade Samsung had flour mills and confectionary machines and become a co-operation in 1951. Humble beginnings.From 1958onwards Samsung began to expand into other industries such as financial, media, chemical and ship building throughout the 1970’s . in 1969, Samsung electronics was established producing what Samsung is most famous for television, mobile phones (througout90’s), radios, computer components and other elec tronics devices. 1987 founder and chairman, byung-chull lee passed away and kun-hee lee took over as chairman. In the1990’s Samsung began to expand globally building factories in the us, Britain, Germany Thailand Mexico Spain and china until 1997In 1997 nearly all Korean business shrunk in size and Samsung was no exception. They sold business to relieve debt and cut employees down lowering personnel by 50,000. But thanks to the electronic industry they manage to curb this and continue to grow. The history of Samsung and mobile phones stretches back to over 10 years . in 1993 Samsung developed the lightest mobile phone of its era the SCH 800 and it was available on CDMA networks. Then they developed smart phone and a phone combined mp3 player towards the end of the 20th century . to this date Samsung are dedicated to the 3g industry . aking video, camera phones at a speed to keep up with consumer demand . Samsung has made steady growth in the mobile industry and are currently second but competitor Nokia is ahead with more than 100%increase in shares. VISION OF THE COMPANY Leading the digital convergence revolution â€Å"GROWING TO BE THE BEST† As a part of vision Samsung has mapped out a specific plan of reaching $400 billion in revenue & becoming one of the world’s top 5 brands by 2020 MISSION OF THE COMPANY â€Å"DIGITAL –E COMPANY† excited about future to serve better services to the people in the market of telecommunications THE SAMSUNG PHILOSOPHYAt Samsung we follow a simple business philosophy to devote our talent and technology to creating superior products and services that contribute to a better global society. Every day people bring this philosophy to life . Samsung leaders search for the brightest talent from around the world, and give them the resources they need to be the best at what they do . The result is that all of their products from memory chips that help business store vital knowledge to mobile phones that connect people across continents have the power to enrich lives and that’s what making a better global society is all about. VALUESSamsung believe that by living by strong values is the key to business. At Samsung a rigorous code of conduct and these core values are at the heart of every decision they make . PEOPLE Quite simply, a company its people. At Samsung, we are dedicated to giving our people a wealth of opportunities to reach their full potential EXCELLENCE Everything we do at Samsung is driven by an unyielding passion for excellence and an unfaltering commitment to develop the best products and services on the market. CHANGE In today’s fast paced global economy, change is constant and innovation is critical to a company’s survival.As we have done for 70 years, we set our sights on the future ,anticipating market needs and demands so we can steer our company towards long term success . INTIGRITY Operating in an ethical way is the foundations of our busi ness . everything we do is guided by a moral compass that ensures fairness respect for all stakeholders and complete transparency. CO-PROSPERITY A business cannot be successful unless it creates prosperity and opportunity for others . Samsung is dedicated to being a socially and environmentally responsible corporate citizen in every community where we operate around the globe. PRINCIPLES OF THE COMPANY We comply with laws and ethical standards. * We respect customers, shareholders and employees. * We are socially responsible corporate citizen. * We care for the environment health and safety. * We maintain a clean environmental culture. MARKETING STRATEGY OF SAMSUNG * Aggressively hawking flips tops and clamshells with polyphonic ring tones and color screen. * Nationwide distributer and retail presence in the consumer durable market. * Samsung has been associated with the Lakme India fashion week for its mobile phones the company used the LIFW 2005 as a platform to launch D-500,world ’s best mobile phone in the Indian market. Set up a hand set manufacturing facility in India CHAPTER-2 2. 1. REVIEW OF LITREATURE A review of literature helps the researcher to have knowledge about the related study done by others; the following research studies were observed. John Ribeiro, IDG News Service (Apr 27, 2012) Samsung beat Nokia to the top position in the global handset market in the first quarter of 2012, research firms Strategy Analytics and IHS iSuppli said Friday. The research firms however disagreed on Samsung's Smartphone shipments in the first quarter wit iSuppli giving Apple the top position in smart phones, while Strategy Analytics called in favor of Samsung.The Korean company shipped 93. 5 million handsets in the first quarter, up from 69 million units a year earlier, for a 25 percent share of the market, even as global handset shipments grew a little over 3 percent annually to reach 368 million units in the quarter, Strategy Analytics said. How Samsung moved Nokia’s Cheese (Business Today dated May 2012): A comparative study shows How Samsung as a brand in the era of smart phones over took the business of Nokia in India. Nokia's competing smart phones were almost no match for Samsung's.It was not until February 2011 that a Finnish answer to the Galaxy came about in the form of the Lumia phone out of the Nokia-Microsoft tie-up in February 2011. The Lumia series received rave reviews internationally but sells just two phones in India – one at Rs 25,000 and a cheaper one at more than Rs 15,000. The devices are way too expensive going by prices Indians are used to, says Anshul Gupta, analyst at research firm Gartner. Why Nokia lost its market leadership in Indian market: A detailed study was carried out on how and where Nokia had lost its market leadership to competition. â€Å"A new OS is like a new religion,† D.Shivakumar, Nokia's Senior Vice President of sales for India, Middle East and Africa, indicating the m arket takes time to accept a completely new product line. He points to the 13 awards the yet-to-be-launched Lumia 900 won at this January's Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas as an instance of its ability to wow customers. How Nokia is among the top five Most Trusted Brands despite shaken reputation (The Economic Times November 2012): This study reveals How Nokia as India’s leading mobile phone for a large part of its existence was building not just its brand but a new category via its early ad campaigns and commercials.According to Nikunj Daga The findings advised that consumers preferred Nokia over all other brands due to features of the phone. Features such as user friendliness, rough and tough body, long life etc were believed to be the reasons of success. Though the marketing strategies have been aggressive, they were not the reasons for high market share of the company. James Crawshaw, European telecom and technology analyst at S;P Capital IQ, is unequivocal about w here Samsung is getting it right and Nokia wrong. Nokia's success [lies] not in increasing market share but in increasing its smart phones portfolio,† he says in a phone interview. Nokia's profits, he insists, need to come from high-end phones like that of Samsung's Android phones. Ratings firm Standard & Poor's downgraded Nokia below investment grade in April. 2. 2. SIGNFICANCE OF THE STUDY The present study is quite significant because it discusses values cultures vision, mission and strategies of two companies . Nokia and Samsung to make comparative analysis between these two companies it identifies the current ositions of the company . The report finds that high quality and advanced technologies are important factor for Nokia’s success moreover they are concentrating on ne area that is telecommunication while Samsung is indulging in many areas Moreover the other finding is that Nokia’s financial position is surpassing its competitors in the telecommunications report concludes that Nokia has established its leadership in telecom companies Samsung is gaining its area in style point of view or advanced features in their products. 2. 3. MANAGERIAL USEFULLNESS OF THE STUDYManagerial usefulness of the study is to analyze the comparative study between Nokia and Samsung. compare between there market strategies and to know about there vision mission and there future plans the respondents were discussing the questions prior to reply thus there could be biasness different promotional schemes were not known by the respondents. The customer analysis of this coursework highlighted that the upper segment of the population are the major consumers of mobile phones extensive research was conducted into strategies being implemented for the rural market . he prominent brands in Indian cellular phones are Nokia and the Samsung . Nokia has the single largest market share in India of 60%and the we have noticed that Nokia is the only competitor of Samsung but Nokia’s major competitor is Sony Ericson since these are very prominent players in the market 2. 4. COMPARATIVE FEATURES OF THE STUDY Comparing Nokia mobile phones Vs Samsung mobile phones, one can clearly see that both the companies are working hard to give users handsets which will make them more interacting. PRLog (Press Release) – Aug. , 2009 – High tech Nokia mobile phones have created a wave in mobile phone market through out UK. Many companies are launching mobile phones ranging from basic to high end segment with cutting edge technology to grab a respectable place in market. Nokia and Samsung are among those companies which have given some awesome handsets to users. Their mobile phones are not only reliable in terms of durability but also enable users to do different things with them. BY comparing mobile phones of both the companies we can know what users can get by buying their products . Design and CameraStyle is what matters to users hence, both the c ompanies invest ample time in designing of mobile phones before launching them. Samsung mobile phones are little bit advanced than Nokia mobile phones in terms of camera quality as company has already come up with a 12 mega pixel camera in Samsung M8910 pixon 12 while Nokia has provided its highest 8 mega pixel camera in Nokia N86. Though Nokia mobile phones are fabricated with world famous Carl Zeiss lenses which are absent in Samsung. Screen Both Nokia and Samsung mobile phones have one of the best quality screens supported with high resolution to give users best viewing experience.The Nokia N97( http://www. 3contractmobilephones. co. uk/nokia_mobile_phone†¦ ) has 3. 5 inches wide screen with resolution of 360 x 640 pixels and 16 million colours. The same specification can be found in Samsung B7610. Being the basic feature, both the companies try to provide best available display screen depending on range of the mobile phone. Data With the advent of 3G, Nokia mobile phones an d Samsung mobile phones have tried to integrate this feature in their handsets. With 3G one can connect to high speed mobile broadband to explore. 2. 4.OJECTIVES OF THE STUDY * To know about the cellular industries. * To help consumers to know about the companies their products and the future over comings * To know about the brand Nokia and the Samsung their products, market strategies, values mission adopted in the cellular companies. * To know consumer behavior towards Nokia and Samsung. 2. 5. SCOPE OF THE STUDY As learning is the human activity and is as natural ,as breathing despite of the fact the learning is all pervasive in our lives, psychologists do not agree on how learning takes place . ow individuals learn s a matter of interest to marketers they want to teach consumers in their roles as their roles as consumers. They want consumers to learn about their products product attributes, potential consumers benefit, how to use, maintain or even dispose of the product and the n ew ways of behaving that will satisfy not only the consumer needs, but the marketer’s objectives. The scope our study restricts itself to the analysis of CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, perception of Nokia and Samsung. 2. 6. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY * The findings of the study will be based on opinion of the respondents, which may be based. The study is confined to Coimbatore youth population * Lack of time and finance may prevent from carrying out in depth study. CHAPTER-3 RESEARCH METHDOLOG Research comprise defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis or suggested solutions; collecting, organizing and evaluating data; making deductions and reaching conclusions; and at last carefully testing the conclusions to determine whether they fit the formulating Hypothesis. In short, the search for Knowledge through Objective and Systematic method of finding solutions to a problem is Research. Research DesignType of Research: – Descriptive research Descriptive research includes Surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening. Data Source: * There are two types of data. Primary Data: * The data was mainly obtained from the people feedback on the questionnaire which was distributed by the group members at various places Secondary Data: * The secondary data was obtained from various journals, internet, magazines etc.Research Instruments Selected instrument for Data Collection for Survey is Questionnaire. Sample Design Who is to be surveyed? The marketing researcher must define the target population that will be sampled. The sample Unit taken by me; General public of youth population, different gender and different professions. Extent:- Where the survey should be carried out? I have covered entire Coimbatore city for the survey Time Frame:- When the survey should be conducted? I conducted my survey f or 1week Sampling Frame:- The source from which the sample is drawn Sampling Technique: –How should the respondent be chosen? In the Project sampling is done on basis of Probability sampling. Among the probability sampling design the sampling design chosen is stratified random sampling. Because in this survey I had stratified the sample in different gender and different profession Sample Size/ Population Size: – How many people should be surveyed? My sample size is 55 Tools of analysis:- Simple percentage analysis and weighted average are used for the study. bar chart were also used to this study. Based on these results, conclusions were drawn and suggestions were given. 1.Simple percentage analysis:- This method is based on the opinion of respondents percentage is been calculated for respective scale of each other factor Simple percentage is calculated by using the following formula Simple percentage = [Total respondents/Total number of respondents]*100. 2. Weighted a verage method:- In weighed average method the mean in which each item being averaged is multiplied by a number (weight)the result is summed and the total is divided by the sum of weights. Weighted averages are used expensively in descriptive statistical analysis such as index number.It may also called as weighed mean. Weighed average = [N1*A1+N2*A2+N3*A3†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦+Nn*An] —————————————————- [N1+N2†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. Nn] Weighed average =wx/n . CHAPTER-4 DATA ANALYSIS Table -4. 1 1. The below table shows Brands which are used by the respondents. CRITERIA | NO. OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE | NOKIA| 19| 35 %| SAMSUNG | 22| 40 %| SONY| 3| 5 %| BLACKBERRY | 3| 5 %| MICROMAX| 5| 10 %| OTHERS| 3| 5 %| TOTAL| 55| 100%| INTERPRETATION:From the above table, out of 55 respondents 35% of respondents were using Nokia, 40% of Responde nts using Blackberry, 10% of respondents were using Micromax and 5% of respondents were respondents using Blackberry, 10% of respondent were using Micromax and 5% of respondents were dents were using Samsung, 5 % of respondents were using Sony, 5% of respondents were using Blackberry, 10% of respondent were using Micromax and 5% of respondents were using others. Chart -4. 1 1. The below chart shows brands which are used by the respondents . Table-4. 2 2. The below table shows percentage of people who would like to buy a good brand mobile?PARTICULAR| NO. OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE | NOKIA| 10| 18%| SAMSUNG| 14| 25%| SONY| 1| 2%| BLACKBERRY| 4| 7%| APPLE| 24| 44%| HTC| 1| 2%| OTHERS| 1| 2%| TOTAL| 55| 100| INTERPRETATION: From the above table out of 55 respondents, 18% of respondents are prefer to buy Nokia, 25% of respondents are prefer to buy Samsung, 2% of respondents are prefer to buy Sony,7% of respondents are prefer to buy Blackberry,44% of respondents are prefer to buy Apple , 2% of respondents are prefer to buy HTC, and 2% of respondents are prefer to buy Chart -4. 2 2. The below chart shows percentage of people who would like to buy a good brand mobile?Table -4. 3 3. The below table shows brands which have the best battery backup. PARTICULAR| NO. OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE | NOKIA| 25| 45%| SAMSUNG | 15| 27%| SONY| 3| 5%| BLACKBERRY | 2| 4%| MICROMAX| 1| 2%| OTHERS| 8| 15%| TOTAL| 55| 100%| INTERPRETATION: From the above table, out of 55 respondents 45% of respondents are mention that Nokia have the best battery back up,27%of respondents are mention the Samsung ,5% of respondents are mention the Sony ,4% of respondents are mention the Black berry ,2% of respondents are mention the Micromax,15% of respondents are mention the others.Chart -3 3. The below chart shows brands which have the best battery backup. Table -4. 4 4. The below table depicts the features that best suits a brand Criteria | Nokia | Percentage | Samsung | Percentage | Others | Percentag e | Total | Reliability | 29| 53%| 20| 36%| 6| 11%| 100%| Android | 12| 22%| 35| 64%| 8| 14%| 100%| Music | 26| 47%| 22| 40%| 7| 13%| 100%| Camera picture clarity (megapixel)| 21| 38%| 23| 42%| 11| 20%| 100%| Social networking | 28| 50%| 22| 40%| 5| 10%| 100%| Touch screen | 16| 29%| 31| 56%| 8| 15%| 100%|Economically price tag | 22| 40%| 20| 36%| 13| 24%| 100%| INTERPRETATION: * From the above table out of 55 respondents, most of the respondents prefer Nokia as reliable. 36% of respondents are prefer Samsung and 11%of respondents are prefer others. * In the above table 64% of respondents are prefer android facility in Samsung ,22% of respondents are prefer Nokia and 14% of respondents are prefer others. * In the above table 47% of respondents are prefer music in Nokia ,40% , of respondents are prefer Samsung and 13% of respondents are prefer others. In the above table 42% of respondents are prefer Samsung in the category of camera picture clarity,38% of respondents are prefer Nokia ,and 20 % of respondents are prefer others. * In the above table 50% of respondents are prefer Nokia in the criteria of social networking ,40% of respondents are prefer Samsung, and 10% of respondents are prefer others. * In the above table 56% of respondents are prefer Samsung in the criteria of touch screen , 29% of respondents are prefer Nokia, and 15% of respondents are prefer others. In the above table 40% of respondents are prefer Nokia in the criteria of economically price tag,36% of respondents prefer Samsung and 24% of respondents are prefer others. Chart -4. 4 4. The below table depicts the features that best suits a brand Table -4. 5 5. The below table shows criteria on which Nokia is rated. Criteria | 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| Total | Weighed average | Rank | Maintenance | 20| 36| 27| 20| 15| 118| 2. 14| 3| Durability | 40| 14| 9| 8| 15| 86| 1. 56| 1| Style/design | 5| 20| 6| 120| 40| 191| 3. 47| 6| Colour | 1| 8| 30| 100| 75| 214| 3. 89| 8|Size | 2| 6| 75| 60| 50| 193| 3. 50| 7| Price | 2| 70| 30| 20| 15| 142| 2. 58| 4| Availability | 32| 16| 30| 12| 10| 100| 1. 81| 2| Light weight | 5| 6| 12| 60| 140| 223| 4. 05| 9| Comfort | 15| 24| 18| 10| 10| 179| 3. 25| 5| INTERPRETATION: From the above table Nokia occupies first place in durability, second place in availability, third place in maintenance, fourth place in price, fifth place in comfort, sixth place in style and design, seventh place in size, eight place in colour and finally nineth place in light weight. It shows the rank of Nokia phones.Table -4. 6 6. The table below shows criteria on which Sony Ericson is rated. Criteria | 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| Total | Weighed average | Rank | Maintenance | 5| 6| 30| 80| 85| 206| 3. 74| 5| Durability | 3| 4| 18| 76| 125| 226| 4. 10| 8| Style/design | 35| 20| 15| 12| 10| 92| 1. 67| 1| Colour | 30| 30| 6| 12| 25| 103| 1. 87| 2| Size | 18| 30| 36| 40| 50| 174| 3. 16| 3| Price | 2| 6| 30| 100| 75| 213| 3. 87| 6| Availability | 4| 10| 66| 56| 50| 186| 3. 38| 4| Light weight | 5| 6| 12| 60| 140| 223| 4. 05| 7| Comfort | 3| 4| 75| 160| 50| 292| 5. 30| 9| INTERPRETATION:From the above table SONY ERICSON occupies first place in style and design , second place in colour, third place in size, fourth place in price, fifth place in maintenance, sixth place in price, seventh place in light weight, eighth place in durability and finally ninth place in comfort. It shows the rank of SONY ERICSON phones. Table 4. 7 7. The table below shows criteria on which Micromax is rated. Criteria | 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| Total | Weighed average | Rank | Maintenance | 6| 10| 54| 40| 80| 190| 3. 45| 4| Durability | 4| 14| 48| 80| 40| 186| 3. 38| 3| Style/design | 2| 6| 30| 32| 160| 230| 4. 8| 8| Colour | 5| 6| 6| 60| 150| 227| 4. 12| 6| Size | 2| 6| 18| 36| 175| 237| 4. 30| 9| Price | 38| 18| 9| 8| 15| 88| 1. 60| 1| Availability | 3| 4| 18| 76| 125| 226| 4. 10| 5| Light weight | 35| 20| 15| 12| 10| 92| 1. 67| 2| Comfort | 1| 8| 30| 48| 140| 227| 4. 12| 6| INTERPRETATION: From the above tabl e MICROMAX occupies first place in price, second place in light weight, third place in durability, fourth place in maintenance, fifth place in availability , sixth place in comfort and colour, eighth place in style and design and finally ninth place in comfort.It shows the rank of MICROMAX phones. Table -4. 8 8. The table below shows criteria on which Black berry is rated. Criteria | 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| Total | Weighed average | Rank | Maintenance | 18| 40| 27| 20| 15| 120| 2. 18| 3| Durability | 10| 35| 5| 3| 2| 117| 2. 12| 2| Style/design | 12| 20| 84| 16| 5| 137| 2. 49| 6| Colour | 9| 26| 75| 20| 15| 145| 2. 63| 8| Size | 5| 64| 39| 12| 10| 130| 2. 36| 4| Price | 5| 6| 12| 60| 140| 223| 4. 05| 9| Availability | 18| 24| 45| 24| 20| 131| 2. 38| 5| Light weight | 8| 46| 45| 20| 20| 139| 2. 52| 7| Comfort | 39| 16| 9| 8| 15| 87| 1. 58| 1| INTERPRETATION:From the above table BLACKBERRY occupies first place in comfort, second place in durability, third place in maintenance, fourth place in size, fifth place in availability, sixth place in style and design, seventh place in light weight, eighth place in colour and finally ninth place in price. It shows the rank of BLACKBERRY phones. Table -4. 9 9. The table below shows criteria on which Samsung is rated. Criteria | 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| Total | Weighed average | Rank | Maintenance | 2| 12| 30| 84| 80| 206| 3. 78| 8| Durability | 7| 50| 54| 12| 10| 133| 2. 41| 2| Style/design | 3| 10| 105| 40| 10| 168| 3. 5| 4| Colour | 15| 56| 18| 16| 15| 120| 2. 18| 1| Size | 2| 16| 96| 40| 15| 169| 3. 07| 5| Price | 4| 16| 90| 36| 20| 166| 3. 01| 3| Availability | 2| 10| 33| 132| 20| 197| 3. 58| 6| Light weight | 3| 10| 18| 124| 50| 205| 3. 72| 7| Comfort | 1| 8| 30| 100| 75| 214| 3. 89| 9| INTERPRETATION: From the above table SAMSUNG occupies first place in colour, second place in durability, third place in price, fourth place in style and design, fifth place in size sixth place in availability , seventh place in light weight, eighth place in maintenance and finally ninth place in comfort.It shows the rank of SAMSUNG phones. Table4. 10 10. The below table shows Satisfaction level of service provided by Nokia service centre. S. NO| CRITERIA | NO. OF RESPONDENTS| PERCENTAGE| 1| High satisfied| 19| 35%| 2| Satisfied| 26| 47%| 3| . Not satisfied| 10| 18%| INTERPRETATION: From the above table, out of 55 respondents 35% of respondents are found to be highly satisfied that the gaining satisfaction from service centre. 47% of respondents are found it to be satisfied, 18% of respondents are found to be not satisfied.Chart-4. 10 10. The below chart shows Satisfaction level of service provided by Nokia service centre. Table 4. 11 11. The below table depicts the features that best suits a brand Criteria| Nokia | Percentage | Samsung | Percentage | Others | Percentage | Total | Built in memory | 31| 56%| 17| 31%| 7| 13%| 100%| Software compatibility| 20| 36%| 31| 56%| 4| 7%| 100%| Audio output | 23| 42%| 21| 38%| 11| 20%| 100% | Appearances | 20| 36%| 28| 51%| 7| 13%| 100%| Accessories | 24| 44%| 21| 38%| 10| 18%| 100%| INTERPRETATION: From the above table out of 55 respondents, 56% of respondents are majorly prefer Nokia has built in memory. 31% of respondents are prefer Samsung and 13%of respondents are prefer others. * From the above table out of 55 respondents, 56% of respondents are majorly preferred Samsung has software compatibility, 36% of respondents are prefer Nokia and 7% of respondents are prefer others. * From the above table out of 55 respondents 42% of respondents are majorly preferred Nokia has audio output , 38% of respondents are prefer Samsung and 20% of respondents are prefer others. From the above table out of 55 respondents, 51% of respondents are majorly preferred Samsung in the category of Appearances, 36% of respondents are prefer Nokia, and 13 % of respondents are prefer others. * From the above table out 55 respondents 44% of respondents are majorly preferred Nokia in the criteria of Accessories, 38% of respondents are preferring Samsung, and 18% of respondents are prefer others. Chart -4. 11 11. The below chart depicts the features that best suits a brand Table 4. 12 12. The table below shows the brands which have the better brand image.Particulars | No of respondents| Percentage | Nokia | 21| 38%| Samsung | 18| 33%| Others | 16| 29%| INTERPRETATION: From the above table, out of 55 respondents, 38% of respondents are preferred Nokia have the better brand image, 33% of respondents are prefer Samsung and 29% of respondents are prefer others. Chart 4-12 12. The table chart shows the brands which have the better brand image. Table -4. 13 13. The table below shows brands which have largest service network Particulars | No of respondents| Percentage | Nokia| 24| 44%| Samsung | 21| 38%|Others | 10| 18%| INTERPRETATION: From the above table out of 55 respondents, 44% of the respondents preferred Nokia have largest service network, 38% of the respondents are prefer Samsung and 18% of the respondents are prefer others. Chart -4. 13 13. The chart below shows brands which have largest service network. Table-4. 14 10. The below table shows satisfaction level of service provided by Samsung service center. Particulars | No of respondents| Percentage | Highly satisfied | 21| 38%| Satisfied | 18| 33%| Not satisfied| 16| 29%| INTERPRETATION:From the above table, out of 55 respondents 44% of respondents are found to be highly satisfied that the gaining satisfaction from Samsung service centre. 38% of respondents are found it to be satisfied, 18% of respondents are found to be not satisfied. Chart -4. 14 10. The below chart shows satisfaction level of service provided by Samsung service center. Suggestions given by the people †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. During our survey we asked the people to give some suggestions to the compananies there is similar suggestion for both the companies given by 25 peoples that they should not increase their prices.And 1 suggestions g iven by only 1 person out of 55 that is cellular companies that there should be some function to indicate the person is driving this will not avoid accidents during driving. CHAPTER-5 FINDINGS * 40% respondents are using Samsung. * 44% of respondent are willing to buy apple phones. * 45% of respondents are choosing Nokia for the best battery back. * 53% of respondents prefer Nokia phones as reliable. 3 * 64% of respondents are choosing Samsung in the criteria of android facility. * 47% of respondents are selects Nokia hearing best music. 42% of respondents are choosing Nokia for the internet connection in social networking sites. * 56% of respondents choose Samsung for touch sensitivity. * 40% of respondents are choosing Nokia for the price tags. * 56% of respondents are choosing Nokia for the memory status56% of respondents chooses Samsung has best software compatibility. * 42% of respondents choosing Nokia for the best audio output. * 3. 37% of respondents are choosing Nokia for d urability as first place. * 1. 67% of respondents are choosing Sony Ericson for style and design as fist place. * 1. 0% of respondents are choosing Micromax in the criteria of price tag as first place. * 1. 58% of respondents are choosing Blackberry for comfort as first place. * 2. 18% of respondents are choosing Samsung for colour as first place. * 47% of respondents are satisfied by the Nokia service centre. * 51% of respondents are choosing Nokia for appearance as best. * 44% of respondents are choosing Nokia for the accessories as the best. * 38% respondents are prefer Nokia for the better brand image. * 44% of respondents are prefer Nokia have the largest service network. 38% of respondents are highly satisfied for the service provide by the Samsung service centre. RECOMMENDATION After analyzing all the data we have some recommendations such as:- Advertisements: – Nokia use advertisement mode of promotion after launching a new cell phone in the market. So people don†™t have much knowledge about their latest models. While Samsung have lots of ads in market before launching it EXAMPLE: – * Giving advertisement on television or cable * Giving print media add which explain all the features of cell phone SPECIAL SCHEMES: – Nokia always launch high range products.So to increase the sales it has to give advertisement or special discount or special schemes with every purchase of new cell phone. Samsung have color variety in their cell phones as Nokia don’t have this much. CONCLUSION Nokia and Samsung segment the market on a similar basis. However, they have different interpretations Nokia has saturated the urban market including the B and C class cities and is now targeting potentially untapped markets. Samsung on the other hand has chosen to focus its energies on the B and C class cities since which it had not ventured into so far.The prominent brands in the Indian cellular phone industry are Nokia, Sony Ericsson, apple, and Sam sung. Nokia has the single largest market share in India of 60%. We have analysed that Nokia is better than Samsung. Nokia and also on one of its major competitors; Samsung since these are very prominent players in the Indian market. BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS * Kothari, C. R. (2007), Research Methodology Methods and Techniques, INTERNET: 1. www. wikipedia. com 2. www. projectsmonitor. com 3. http://www. nokia. com 4. www. samsung . com 5. www. businesstoday . com 6. www. economictimes . com