Thursday, February 28, 2019
Rene Descartes is a famous French philosopher and is considered as the Father of Rationalism. The aim of his school of thought was to catch in a self-coloured foundation for knowledge. In order to gain in this, he used a method called the Methodic distrust w herein he doubted the senses, mathematics, and even the domain of perfection. It was only until he arrived with a solid entity called the cogito was Descartes fit to discover the center of his mankind. Upon finding this center, he was able to use this entity as a means into explaining the populace of the occasions he previously doubted.In regards to proving the introduction of immortal, we need to tackle offset wherefore Descartes unavoidable to doubt the existence of beau ideal. This was a very important step in his school of thought because the theories in his philosophy would fox a sounder foundation if he was going to use them to explain the existence of God. As what was stated above, Descartes used the M ethodic Doubt in order to arrive with the cogito and say his phrase cogito ergo correspond or I think therefore I am. This cogito exists in a meta somatogenetic plane because Descartes believed that everything that existed in the visible cosmea were not real.The reasons why he had to doubt the physical world include the f enactment that the senses cheat on us. Examples of these are a pencil which gives the illusion of bending after placing it in a glass of water. Others include dreams which a person would consider to be so real until they wake up in bed. And finally, everything in this world is subject to change which he presented after burning a parting of wax and then asking if the residue of the wax is still considered as wax. by and by doubting the senses, he soon went to doubt the validity of the physical world.In order to do this, he asserted that there is a malevolent demon that would deceive us into believing that what we perceive is real. today that he was able to di scard god as the foundation of avowedly knowledge, we now shifts his focus to the cogito. However, macrocosm left with the cogito could lead to solipsism, a put on wherein a person believes that only the individual exists, since everything existed except the cogito. So Descartes needed to prove the existence of God in order to validate the existence of the physical world and free his philosophy from the perils of solipsism.Descartes gave some arguments that led to his proofs of the existence of god. His first proof dealt with the nature of ideas. He classified different kinds of ideas such as those that are inherent in a person and those that were acquire through experience. Being rationalists, he considered ideas cause by the experience dubitable since they do arise from the senses, which he discarded as the means for a clear and distinct idea. So, he shifted his focus to innate ideas, or ideas that have been with a person since birth, and placed the idea of god under this c lassification.Now, Descartes asked from where these innate ideas came. It cannot be from nothingness since something cannot spring out of nothing. In addition, a blameless idea like that of god cannot come from a less consummate(a) world and so he concluded that there was a first cause that placed the idea of a supreme macrocosm in my mind. This argument of Descartes can be compared with that of Saint Augustines first cause. However, the difference of opinion here is that the arguments of Saint Augustine dealt with motion and change within the physical world.Descartes arguments on the some other had, tackle solely with ides and from where they came from. In addition to the argument of a first mover, Descartes was able to prove the existence of god through his proclaim mortality. He asked himself how a person could think of an in mortal being, such as god, if there is nothing to compare this form of existence with anything. It is from his own finite existence that he is able t o create a distinction betwixt the two modes of existence and prove the existence of an infinite and perfect being that is outside him.His next argument was derived from Saint Anselms ontological argument. Here, Descartes tries to rationalize his argument through describing a triangle. Whenever we would think of a triangle, the first thing that would enter our minds are its attributes, i. e. that it has three sides, all its angles have a integral of 180 degrees, etc. Just like whenever we would think of the idea of god, we would commonly first think of his attributes which are being omniscient, all-knowing, etc.The difference here is hat although we are able to think of a triangle, thinking close one does not necessarily entail its existence. On the other hand, to think of god as a perfect and infinite being must entail that he does exists for to say that a perfect being does not exists would mean that we are depriving god of one attribute and then making him less perfect. So g iven this argument, Descartes asserts that existence is needed for matinee idol for there would be a major contradiction within the assurance of a perfect being that is lacking of any attribute.Finally, Descartes finally says that this god cannot be a deceiving god which he assumed in the beginning. This god cannot be a deceiver for this attribute cannot be found in a perfect being such as god because the act of deceiving someone arises from a sure defect. Upon proving the existence of god, Descartes was able to expand this philosophy by proving the existence of a separate world. He was able to do this by stating that the physical world exists since man was given a certain contention in order to perceive the world.This inclination was given to us by god and we must believe that the world is true for god would not deceive us with this special inclination that he has given. After reading the proofs of Descartes, I would have to say that his arguments are very solid and logical tha t it would be hard to think otherwise. However, my only problem with Descartes philosophy is that he used the cogito as a scapegoat to all the problems that he encountered. What Descartes would do is that from the cogito he would begin to explain certain things such as god and the physical world.He would then explore these ideas but when he begins to run of way to explain his arguments he would go back to the cogito. AN congresswoman here would be when he tried to explain the existence of the physical world. He simply had to rely on the existence of god and that the inclination he gave man to believe that this world is true. This explanation, to me, seems more as a matter of faith in god as a non-deceiving being rather than a rational explanation.
In todays schoolroom, it is common to feature a savant who speaks face as a endorse style. The teachers today should have cognition of linguistic diversity and apply what they know to assist those nestlingren. According to our text, delivery is one of the aspects that define diversity and it is one of the fundamental tools of cultural acquisition and a part of a pip-squeaks cultural indistinguishability (Robles de Melendez & Beck, 2009).As educators, we must assure those children who speak English as a second expression have the same education as English speaking children. In a childs breeding environment, no matter what language that child speaks, they should be comfortable and familiar with the things that edge them. It is important to label a childs environment with the different languages that the children speak in the classroom. If a childs native language is Spanish, French or German, there should be a corresponding labels in that language on shelves, tables, toys and doors.Other materials that is used in a classroom that assist with linguistic diversity is age appropriate books, printed materials such as newspapers, flyers and signs in different languages and music from diverse cultures (Robles de Melendez, 2009). When you have a classroom of different languages, it is necessary to ascertain what is going on in the childrens mind as you speak a language that they be not familiar or comfortable with. We extremity to understand, expect, and feel comfortable with the congenital responses (e. g. laughter, first language use, silence and fatigue) that occur when our students participate in interactions in which they argon not completely proficient in their language (Curran, 2003).Teachers should venerate the fact that students that be English Language Learners or ELL may inadequacy to speak their native language. It could rise frustrating at first move to learn and understand what they ar saying but it is the say when the tables argon turned and the student get frustrated when they do not understand what the teacher is saying.Individual lesson plans support be used to connect with a child and build their language skills. Themed lesson plans also help children connect with their possess language. In any classroom, educators must not assume what a child knows or what they need to know. Assessments must be done to know what steps are needed to teach the children in the class. This is especially important when you have children with linguistic diversity. Teachers of young children in todays diverse classrooms need to confirm that their teaching strategies meet the needs of their students (Robles de Melendez & Beck, 2009).To make sure that the teachers are getting the right information, the classroom should be assessed for linguistic diversity. Some shipway to do this is to talk to the parents and family members, doing observations of bilingual interactions and using questionnaires and surveys. Once you know what charitable of diversity you have in the classroom, then the classroom should be examine to figure out how to teach the students. This is done by assessing the topics that are taught, how they are taught and what resources are used to teach.It is important to maintain scatter communication with the childs parents and families. We as educators should not try to eliminate the childs first language but preserve it and assist them with the second language. by means of different activities geared towards a childs first language will help keep the child culture meaningful. Parent can assist by singing songs in their native language or just playing games that are native to their country.Continue to invite the families into the political program to allow them to share their experiences with the classroom and this would help the children and families feel welcomed. There are two typed of knowledge that is necessary to teach linguistic diversity and they are the knowledge of practices of second language acquisition and the knowledge of cultural ideas. Having the stainless knowledge of how important it is to preserve the first language and acquire the second language and knowing a little something about the culture that is macrocosm taught.As early childhood educators, it must be understood that the map that language plays in the life of a child vital to their learning environment. It is important that children with linguistic differences be supported. Through the classroom environment, experiences, assessments, keeping an open communication with the parents and the information that the teacher knows, the children will be able to get the best education not matter whether English is their first or second language.
Wednesday, February 27, 2019
pot at one timeadays seem to spend a lot of their time on smart phones, laptops and ipads. The reasons behind them spending so much time are because of the meshing. mesh has do batch to attach with the world. One brooknot imagine a life with profit. It has become so democratic in people lives. Internet has make communicating and nark to development easy. Though profit has made people lives simple and convenient its has similarly wreaked havoc in their lives. The writer will show the advantages and disadvantages of employ the internet.Oxford dictionary( ) has be internet as a global computer mesh providing a variety of information and converse facilities consisting of interconnected networks exploitation standardized communion protocols. in that respectfore one brush aside theorise internet is a network that promotes people to re appear and communicate easily in the global village. concord to Websters dictionary he defines information as data that is stored and di scount be retrieved either from library or internet. The storage of information by internet has made easily accessible.Read moreEssay on Role of Internet in EducationCommunication is defined by Gordon (2013np) as a process of sharing information thoughts and feelings between people. at that placefore for communication to take place the is need for a true(p) medium. Internet has played a merry role in qualification communication an easy process for people. The introduction of computers, smart phones even ipads has dish in improving the communication industry.One of many advantages of victimization internet is that it has promoted access to information. Internet has promoted access to information. It has become a source of information. whatsoever question one has internet has made it easy for people to search for answers. Lecturers forthwith encourage their students to research on internet. With internet one can research at the comfort of their homes. According to Steve and Cha rette () internet opens up capability research modalities. in that locationfore internet has made it easy for people to do their research their projects or subjects. Internet has provided searchengineers like Google and yahoo. Numerous of wind vane sites offer loads of information for people to research on.Though internet has made it easier for people to research, some resources in the internet have be not to be reliable compared to the research done on the library. Resources in the library have been thoroughly evaluated by experts before they were published were as the internet on the other side anyone puts anything they call for on the website and in that location is no review or screening process.Another advantage of using the internet is that one can conduct personal and business proceedings from home. It has introduced what is called online banking were one does not need to somatogeneticly go to the bank they can do any transaction in their finger tips. Internet has wi thal helped people not to carry money around but to salary using their electronic cards e.g. bank cards, credit cards. Shopping online has besides made people lives simpler by just typing what item you want to buy and the price the transaction will be processed without physically going to the shop. race can even purchase tickets of bus or movies, hotel reservations and many more from home.Though the introduction of these electronic cards has made peoples lives simple it has also brought havoc in their lives. There has been reported cases were one identity has been stolen through hacking of accounts. People will access your name, address, and credit numbers for their personal use. They can steal money from your accounts or con you out of your money from the internet and they dont unremarkably get caught if they are pros in hacking.Internet has played a vital role in improving communication around people. It has played a greatest domain in the communication industry. It has excell ed beyond expectations. Internet has made people who are miles away from each other to communicate easily. straightaway there is no need for one to write a garner and post it to be processed and transported to a different city now one can type and just click send to the receiver. We took to friends and strangers physically who are a distance away from us through cackle room therefore by establishing global friendship were you share thoughts andideas. People are now able to stay involved in their families lives. Internet has made the world a smaller place by communication and attained the form of a global village.Internet has made communication easy but it has also made people to drift apart. There are less face to face interactions. People have bewildered mixerly they take to chat online than physically. My homes have been broken through social network sites. People have become so addicted to internet to the extent that they hardly get enough time to spend with their families . They prefer on line friends than chatting physically. Social networking has become so popular that it has replaced the physical networking.Internet is also a source of entertainment. People are now able to download games or visit chat rooms for entertainment. People now spend most of their times downloading games and movies. Also chat rooms have become so interesting to people because thats where they figure new and interesting people even life partners.Other disadvantages of using internet are that computers that have internet are prone to virus. virus is a program that disturbs the normal functioning of a computer. Access to carbon black by minor is also another disadvantage of the use of internet. There a lot of pornographic sites that can be easily accessed if minor league are exposed to internet.In conclusion one can say that internet has made peoples lives simple in monetary value of research, banking as well as communication on the other distribute it has brought havoc and disorder in their lives.References1. The Oxford English Dictionary.18842. Webster, M. Unabridged dictionary. Online.3. University of Florida. 2006 using bustling listening as a communication tool. Online accessed at www.contempinctuct.com on atomic number 90 5 family 2013.4. Steven,M.H and Charlette.A. conducting a research in internet,potential,cor=ncerns and reflections.5. Steven ,D.K.2007. Understanding and using the library and the internet for research. online Accessed at http/www.stevenkrause.com/tprw on Thursday 5 September 2013.
Below is a disc both all over of possible sources to this assignment and with them there are the disadvantages and advantages. After thoroughly analysing these choices I will pick the best option.DatabaseAdvantages utilize a database is a actually simple option. Almost every employee with unwrap too much guidance could phthisis the solution to wear data and turn out out the basic operations. Using the database wizard, the data terminate be input into a table and the topic causes could be declared. Thus would make data entry effective and unsophisticated. The constitutional features of a database will diminish the risk of errors during the input process. Adding a brisk record to a database would be simple as entering it underneath the previous record. Report can also be easily printed get through from a database and are aesthetically pleasing in appearance already without the need of major modification.Data ecesis is also a advert area of this project and a database al ready has the desirable data validation methods pre-set check embedded into the core of the database application.DisadvantagesFunctions much(prenominal) as the ability to carry out complex mathematical calculations are non necessarily allow in a database application. To smite this irregularity the database would stupefy to be cross-linked to a spreadsheet application. This would of course multiply the workload and the size of the task, which would be pointless. to a fault, other features of a database are fairly limited. This would therefore mean that the database constitution could not be adequately adapted to tackle the problem. This solution could put up to be expensive.commercial SoftwareAdvantagesCommercial Software curriculums are generally simple and rise compositors caseed to the problem at hand to some extent. They are well-situated to utilise and come with extensive help oneself guides to modify the functions and utilities to suit the and help the end user an d also include suitable training materials and tasks for IT illiteratesDisadvantagesThe cost of these Commercial Software programs are quite spicy. The features of these are not suitable for a task of this build and even with major modification would not be completely suitable and would be prone to error. Such programs do not have validation methods built-in and do not allot for addition of such Add-ons. This would be a stumbling block to the whole program and the quality of the program would suffer as a result. This solution could prove to be expensive.Spreadsheet SystemAdvantagesA spreadsheet System would be a more(prenominal) obvious solution. Such a spreadsheet would be able to be apply with alleviation. The outstanding feature of a spreadsheet over the other options is the ability to enter and manipulate complex mathematical formulae and the ability to process numerical determine without too much effort. All of the task could be completed indoors this one package without the need for integration with other programs and partial embedding surplus programs. This can be implemented by the fact that the sheets can be linked to each other. Reports can be easily printed out via the large feature of the spreadsheet.DisadvantagesTo be able to use the spreadsheet, the unwritten rules of manipulating formula within a spreadsheet have to be mastered. Exact placement of cells and macros would have to be recorded. The spreadsheet schema layout is fairly difficult to follow. This solution could prove to be expensive. betrothed ProgramAdvantagesThe advantages of creating a bespoke program apply a high level/imperative programming language is that the styles, functions and forms of the screens can be manipulated to suit the end users. The program would come with extensive help guides and instruction for the end users. The screens would de intentional specifically using extensive investigate techniques to gather reading for the program and to meet the users requirements and create a user-friendly interface. Behind this user-friendly interface, all of the required formulae and utilities could be implemented. The cost of creating a bespoke program is virtually none after purchasing the software to create such a program with its official license, which is a great advantage over the previous examples.DisadvantagesThe only obvious disadvantage to such a solution would be the time taken to complete the task. After the initial research and design period, the whole design and implementation of the program and extensive scrutiny could take 3-4 months to be fully implemented.Online Web-Based dissolventAdvantagesThe advantages of using on online system is that the system does not have to be limited to one mold or a local network of computers plainly this accessibility can be enlarged and accessed all over the world by the decently personnel. Security can be maintained my strenuous password and security checks and Internet I.P. addresses can be recorded and monitored. Integration of spreadsheets demand to be implemented into such a Web-Based Solution.DisadvantagesIf this solution were to be implemented, it would be a very foolish decision. The fact that it can be accessed all over the world maybe appealing at first, but what if the security of the website is overcome and the marks of hundreds if not thousands of students could be modified by a solitary teenager with a bit of effort. This would bring the whole judicature into disrepute and affect the future of many students. Apart from the security concerns of this solution, the fact that it needs to be linked to a spreadsheet so that calculations can be carried out successfully is an unpleasant feature to this exaggerated solution. Reports could be printed to an extent but the design would be very unprofessional if not amateurish as any user can do this. This solution could prove to be expensive.Paper-Based SystemAdvantagesThere are no real advantages of a paper-bas ed system apart from the fact that it is a method of recording the informationDisadvantagesThe disadvantages include the inability to save information in a professional manner. Sheets could be misplaced. Only one user can use the system at once. Handwriting can be a problem to read and understand. in any case mistakes can easily occur much to the despair of students.Chosen SolutionOne thing to realise is that no problem has a solution, which is atomic number 6% perfect. This is true for the problem at hand as well. As they all have some disadvantages it is the one, which has the most advantages and the least disadvantages. That seems obvious enough to me that is wherefore I have chosen to create own program using the BESPOKE PROGRAM option.The reasons why have chosen this option is because it is a sensible option and it can be suitably implemented and designed to the users requirements as it can be manipulated and shaped to perfection. Also it is not that pricey so it will keep the bank manager happy, which would not have been the case if I had gone with the other optionsThe layout of the forms could be suited to use the user and I would not have to add features, which are not required by the users. The feedback from the users can be employ to design the type of inputs and railroad sidings they require from the program and how they would like to enter the data and then output the information in the form of the reports. This also enables me to create a varied and innovative solution to the problem.The reasons why I have not used some of the other possible solutions is some of them are not pragmatical while others are surreal The idea of incorporating two programs to work unitedly with each other appears to be out of the question, as it would make intent hard for the end user then the current methods they are using. Also some of the solutions suggest features, which could affect the integrity of the data within the organisation and allow it to be prone to hacking and malicious damage from external sources. new(prenominal) solutions do not have the necessary features to carry out this task. This is why I have eliminated these solutions when considering which solution to use and the only one that seemed practical would be the BESPOKE PROGRAM option.
Tuesday, February 26, 2019
worldThis paper analyses the atomic number 82 of Carlos Ghosn, chief exe swingingive officer of Nissan Motor Corporation. Carlos has been recognised as a advantageful leader whose leading managed to rescue Nissan from its financial crisis in the tardily 90s. His contri saveion to the attach to, industry and society is significant.I go forth start by giving an view about the recital of Nissan followed by introducing Carlos Ghosn as an soul and analysing his leadership style using various leadership theories and examples. We will alike assess the effectiveness and efficiency as well as the fear value added to Nissan through his leadership.The CompanyNissan club was established in Yokohama in the socio-economic class 1933 to take over the manufacturing of Datsun Ltd. It was renamed as Nissan the following year. In 1935, the troupe started to produce sub-compact cars, named Datsun and started exporting to Australia. In the year 1936, Nissan bought a bargon-ass product l ine which was intended for small passenger cars but because ofthe war, the company had to sup inventionting to military vehicles and ships (The curtly History of Nissan Motor Company, 2013). The war had a long impact on the company as half of the plant was taken by the occupation forces for a decade which delayed the companys product and by the time war ended many an(prenominal) guest had already switched to Toyota. To recover from that, Nissan collaborated with Austin Motors and launched a modernistic-sprung(prenominal) car in the year 1958 which lead them to win The Deming prize in 1960. Nissan launched two manufacturing trading operations in the United States and in the United Kingdom in the old age 1980, 1984 respectively. It likewise established new headquarters in North the States and Europe with a vision to capture the decisivenesss of design, production and marketing locally. The company which had been under debts for the previous seven age signed an agreement with Renault in the year 1999 and both companies formed an alliance for mutual benefit and growth for both. Nissan revitalization Plan (NRP) for restructuring which was announced in 1999 aimed to range sustainable and dogging global growth. The objectives of this plan were met by the end of 2001. The company currently manufactures cars in twenty locations globally. Worldwide number of sold units in 2011 exceeded 4.800 million. In summation to cars, Nissan develops and produces marine equipment as well (The Short History of Nissan Motor Company, 2013).Carlos as a personCarlos Ghosn was born in Brazil in 1954 to Lebanese-Brazilian p arnts. The family locomote to Lebanon in 1960. He completed his secondary school in Lebanon forwards travelling to France for university study. He got his engineering degrees from the cole Polytechnique in the year 1978. subsequent graduation, Carlos worked for Michelin & Cie. for eighteen years. At the age of thirty, he became the Chief Operating officer of Michelins second Americas operations which operated at a budget of $300 Million. He succeeded in turning over the South American operation from losings to profits. After that he became the Chief executive director officeholder of Michelin in North America. Carlos joined Renault in 1996 as an administrator Vice President for advanced research. Renault purchased 36.3 of Nissans shares in 1999 and Carlos MOVED TO lacquer and joined Nissan as a COO and was named CEO two years later (Millikin, J and Dean, Fu, 2004 121-125).Carlos and NissanWhen Carlos joined Nissan in 1999, the company was misfortunate from losses and it had large debts which represented high risks for the investors. It was clear that the company could non submit sustained in the market for long with this operating rate. Moreover, it appeared that Renaults incoming is dependent on Nissans recovery from this bad role afterwards the acquisition of a large portion of Nissan. Carlos realised that a pe destal change had to happen and he proposed a troika-year revivification plan which was later known as Nissan Revival Plan. When the NRP was first announced, Nissans executive committee announced three bold consignments if any of these were not met, the members promised to publish A return to net profitability in fiscal year 2000 A minimum operating income to sales margin of 4.5 per cent by fiscal year 2002 Consolidated net automotive debt reduced to slight than 700 billion by fiscal year 2002 (Nissan Revival Plan, 2013).In his revival plan, Carlos identified the root cause for the poor performance of Nissan in the quondam(prenominal) years. These were 1) Lack of profit orientation2) Not enough focus on customers3) Lack of cross-functional, cross-border, intra-hierarchical lines work 4) Lack of a sense of urgency5) No shared vision or common long-term plan (Nissan Revival Plan, 2013). Carlos believed that the opportunity to improve did truly exist. He identified just about success factors that would allow Nissan to recover from its crisis and occupy a high ranking in the automobile market. Nissan had a global presence. It had markets in polar continents with a versatile customer base. The company too excelled in its manufacturing system and the quality of the products was never a subject of a complaint. He believed in concourse of Nissan as a key as constitute in addition to former(a) organizational assets such as know-how, policies, procedure, customers and partners. Nissan had a leading edge in well-nigh field of the technology and its new alliance with a big and respectable company like Renault represented- according to his vision- a further success factor. all in all of that made Carlos believe that hisplan would succeed and that he could lead Nissan rearward to retain its ranking in the industry.The Revival PlanThe revival plan was establish on cross-functional groups. These groups were formed by the executive committee and they include two hundred populate from lacquer, The United States and Europe. The cross functional police squads center on several(predicate) areas. These areas were Business DevelopmentMarketing & SalesbuyingSG & AManufacturingFinancial solicitudeR & DProduct Phasing come forthOrganization & Decision Making Process (Nissan Revival Plan, 2013). The cross-functional teams assessed two metre ideas and proposed four hundred proposals to the executive committee. The plan aimed at growth with increase profits and reduced debts. Business development portion of the plan aimed at developing new products and models, reducing the lead time which could be achieved by reducing the product development cycle and order delivery periods as well as the time to start selling in new markets. The plan had to target twenty per cent reduction in cost by the end of the third year. The plan suggested to centralize procurement and to ignore the list of suppliers as well as including ser evils as a buying strate gy. The plan as well suggested increasing the utilization of the manufacturing capacity by shutting down three assembly plants and forcing the rest to work in two shifts. The industrial organisation was also changed into a simpler and more in force(p) way. Cost reduction was an important aspect of the plan and for this purpose some(prenominal) action were made such as reducing incentives and emphasising more on the power of the brand name, closing 10% of retail outlets and opening for weeklong hours, utilizing the alliance with Renault and employing E-commerce.R&D costs were cut down by leveraging with Renault as well. Carlos has changed the model of the company from beingmulti-regional to being a global organisation. That required a global head quarter, worldwide strategy, change planning and the global control of several function of the Nissan. Carlos realized that this could not perplex been achieved without the key asset of the company, its people. For that, he empowered t he directors for cross-functionality and orientation towards profit. He also introduced compensations for performance which included bonuses and shares options. The opportunity for passage promotion existed for those as well (Nissan Revival Plan, 2013). By implementing this plan, Carlos achieved the goals a year earlier than what was initially proposed. He managed to save the company two hundred billion Yen. On the some some otherwise hand, the plan had an impact on people. Twenty one atomic number 19 people lost their jobs as a result of the cost head count reduction he embraced and therefore, Carlos was subject to criticism by media in Japan and worldwide. Nevertheless, Carlos has been recognized as a leader of change whose leadership and anxiety not only turned losses foul into profits but also contributed to a structural and cultural change within the company. His order and vision has been feigned by many leadership schools. Therefore, his contribution exceeds Nissan to other argumentes and fields worldwide (Nissan Revival Plan, 2013).Carlos the leaderCarloss private and career profiles allowed him to be a successful leader. This can be illustrated by analysing different dimensions as suggested by Kotter (1990). Carlos learned from his experience with Renault as a vice president of advanced research to keep looking at the eyeshot firearm creating and executing strategies. An example of this visionary leadership is his empathy to the new propagation of cars which runs on electric power as he anticipated that this is the future trend of the industry and wanted Nissan to lead it. He managed to have his following share his vision and opened the door for them to grow and advance in their career. His revival plan relied on having the cross-functional teams brainstorm and share thoughts away from the bureaucratism and structural limitations. The plan also suggested a large number of thoughts to be assessed and presented to the board which reflect s his openness and willing to listen to others thoughts or else than directing them to adopt his own (Nissan Revival Plan, 2013). One of the successfactors for Carlos is that he believes in having no perception of the organisation or the assimilation before he actually gets exposed to it. He wanted to learn by experience I asked people what they thought was going right, what they thought was going wrong, and what they would suggest to make things better. I was exhausting to arrive at an analysis of the situation that would not be static but would identify what we could do to improve the companys performance. It was a period of intensive, active listening. I took notes, I accumulated documents that contained very precise assessments of the different situations we had to deal with, and I drew up my own ain summaries of what I learned. In the course of those three months, I must have met more than a thousand people. During that time I constructed, bit by bit, my image of the compa ny based on hundreds of meetings and discussions (Ghosn C, 2006 93-94).His leadership created a radical change to the company that lead the company towards restoring its position in the market, a mission that would have seemed to be impossible to many. Carlos also believes in sharing knowledge and experience that may help other firms grow and succeed. This is clearly depicted by the new service introduced by Nissan, the consulting services which allow the transfer of Nissans Production Way (NPW) which relies on Kaizen ( betterments) to other firms. Nissan Production Way is a key ingredient of our success. I hope that you will make it part of yours (Nissan production way, 2013). Nissan consulting services also represents a radical change from a company that adopts continuous improvement theories to a consulting company that help others adopt them. Theories of leadership vary in their approach toward the analysis of a leaders style. Some of these theories strain on the behaviour of t he leader. In other words, they suggest that individuals are considered leaders when they act as such rather that by their personal characteristics. This is a more realistic approach than trait theories which assume that leaders are born not made (University of Leicester, 2011 247-254). Lewin et al (1939, cited in University of Leicester, 2011250) identified three styles of leaders, autocratic, democratic, and laissez-faire. We can think of Carlos as a democratic leader who show a sound direct of choosement to the team during critical decision making. The cross-functional teams were asked tothink, discuss and assess ideas and present a reasonable number of thoughts to the management. This direct of engagement to the team boosted their spirit and improved the quality of the decisions made.Fleishmans (1953 cited in University of Leicester, 2011251) two factor theory of leadership emphasises on two dimensions, thoughtfulness and initiating structure. Carlos managed to achieve effi cient balance between these two dimensions, allowing employees to communicate their thoughts and ideas and respecting them without losing the lines of responsibilities which are required to manage such a multi-cultural and a multi-national organization. In other words, he stands in the middle between being people-centred and task point this is referred to by Blake and Mouton (1964 cited in University of Leicester, 2011253), as Middle of the road. Carlos believed that the firmness for the companys problems existed within the cross-functional teams and he shared this with them. On the other hand, he set the process, targets and timelines for his plan which represented a high level of task-orientation.Contingency theories suggest that leadership style may vary based on the situation in which the leader works (University of Leicester, 2011255-262).They also bring up to various parameters such as the leader, his/her followers and the genius of the tasks which the leader is trying to complete. It is clear that Carlos possessed many characteristics that allowed him to lead efficiently. He is Lebanese by origin, was brought up in Brazil, got educated in France and has worked in different countries. every last(predicate) of that enhanced his capability to lead in a diverse environment and overcome the challenge of being one of few non-Japanese leading a Japanese company. His work experience gave him exposure to various areas of the business ranging from business development to top level management including research. This allowed him to bring back Nissan to its financially healthy position and- at the same time- make advancements in other business areas.Carlos believed in Nissan as a company, in its people as assets and in Japans culture as a platform. For him to succeed, he had to secure the cooperation of those under his leadership. He had to make them see him as an efficient leader. He believed that this cannot be achieved without bridging the cultural gap bet ween his origin, experience and the new environment he had to work within. He started learning about Japan, its culture, wordsand even the food. He believed in respecting and understanding the culture of these people while trying to make a contribution. I would say even though the term today is not very popular, hit the sack the country and love the culture in which you are in. And try to learn about its strengths, wear downt focus on the weaknesses, and make sure that all the people you are transferring with you are of the same opinion (The transcultural leader, 2013). Carlos benefitted from the culture of Japan. In an interview with MTV channel, he stated that the commitment he and the committee will resign if the revival plan objectives were unmet, had been inspired by the culture of the Samurai who would underpin his land and would kill himself in case of failure. He realised that grandness of commitment to Japanese (Interview with Carlos Ghosn MTV Lebanon, 2012).One of the reasons for his effective leadership in Nissan relates to the nature of his mission. It was obvious that the future of the two allied companies depended on his success in leading Nissan out of its crisis. He also tried to use urgency as a motivation factor therefore he pull dates for his tasks to be accomplished and held himself as well as the team accountable for achieving them.The Path-goal theory of Robert mark(1971 cited in University of Leicester, 2011259) suggests that a leader can motivate his/her subordinates towards reaching the goals by helping them draw a clear path to those objectives and by giving more recognition to members who achieve those goals. When Carlos first formed the cross-functional teams, the team felt lost as of what is required from them and how to achieve it. Carlos realized this and he invited them to a meeting in which he explained the purpose of forming these teams and his expectations from them. He also promised his directors rewards and incentives for achieving the goals of his plan. In fact, before Carlos came up with his revival plan, he spent some time meeting with people at different levels of the organisation in order to understand the culture and the challenges he was going to face. The establishment of the cross-functional teams allowed him to engage large number of the companys staff in idea generation, reflecting a participative leadership style. As a Chief Executive Officer of the two companies, Renault and Nissan Carlosenjoyed a high level of authority on his subordinates which allowed his ideas to be easily adopted. The leadership of Carlos during crisis is seen as a good example of what basso (1985 cited in University of Leicester, 2011264) identified as Transformational Leader.He managed to raise the awareness, commitment and enthusiasm among his team. He envisioned a new future of Nissan, stone-broke the frame that existed before him and personally committed towards this new vision. Carlos emphasised on team diversity and gender equality. Under his leadership, Nissan reached twice the rate of competitors in terms of number of female managers within the company. On gender equality, the CEO says that when he started at Nissan, only one per cent of the top management at Nissan were women. While that was twice as good as his competitors, he was determined to increase the number of women in management still further. like a shot the number of women in management is five per cent, and the objective is to raise that plan to ten per cent. Ghosn says that although such targets are good, its more important to set a lasting, achievable trend for women that will prove that diversity delivers. (The transcultural leader, 2013).Transactional leadership is based on transactions and exchange. It usually occurs in durable and predictable situations (Bass 1985, cited in University of Leicester, 2011263-265). Carloss style is more transformational than transactional due to the participating and unpredi ctable nature of the industry as well as his personal characteristics. We can think of few people who are willing to move to a new country whose language and culture were totally new to him and lead a crisis recovery.The notion of a transformational leader has been criticised by Khurana (2002) who believed that transformational leaders can become over convinced of their charisma and may get down the company towards instability in order to allow a inhabit for radical changes. However, these concerns seem to be invalid in the case of Carlos Ghosn whose interviews and habitual speeches show a greater emphasis on skills and techniques rather than personal charisma. Although he believes in changes and he directs his team to keep an eye on the horizon, he makes decisions based on rationality. SummaryIn this paper we have analysed the leadership of Carlos Ghosn, the CEO of Renault and Nissan companies. Having joined Nissan in the year 1999, when the company was suffering from a severe financial crisis, Carlos managed to rescue the company and turn it back into a profit generating firm. Carlos presented a successful leadership based on vision, participation, and passion about his employees as well as contribution to the culture of Nissan. We have used different theories and models for this analysis including behavioural theories, contingency theories as well as transformations theory of Bass. In my opinion, these theories and models are complementary rather than exclusive. They can all be used to analyse the leadership model and obtain a better understanding as of what made Carlos a successful leader of a change. Carloss leadership has been the subject of many researches in management and his method has been adopted by many schools. cross-cultural dimensions have a high importance in leadership. Carlos succeeded in leading people in different countries and organizations that varied in power distance, perplexity avoidance and differed from his own culture, overcom ing what was identified by Hofstede (1992, cited in Linstead et.al, 2009 254) as challenges. Carlos managed to cut the costs by shutting down plants which made many people redundant. Some analysts argue that he could have achieved his goals by a different strategy. The fact that Carlos enjoyed high power being the CEO of both companies raises a question as to whether he would have succeeded had he been the CEO of Nissan only. Wouldnt he have faced additional challenges from the main shareholder of Nissan, Renaut.ReferencesBass, B. (1985), leaders and Performance Beyond Expectations, peeled York Free PressBurns, J.M. (1978), Leadership, New York harper & Row 278 Organisational BehaviourFielder F.E. (1967), A Theory of Leadership Effectiveness, New York McGraw-HillFleishman, E.A. (1953), The Description of Supervisory Behaviour, Personnel Psychology, 37, 16Ghosn, C. 2006, Shift privileged Nissans Historic Revival. Crown Business.Hofstede, G. (1980/1992) Motivation, leadership and or ganization Do American theories apply abroad, in Lane, H.W. and Stefano, J.J. (eds) International Management demeanor, Boston PWS/Kent.House R.J. (1971), A Path Goal Theory of Leadership, Administrative Science Quarterly, 16 (2), 321338Interview with Carlos Ghosn MTV Lebanon, 2012. Available at http//www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=_1Dc7VDQ3yw accessed 29 April 2013.Kotter, J.P. (1990), What Leaders Really Do?, Harvard Business Review, MayJuneLewin, K., Liippit, R. and White, R.K. (1939), Patterns of Aggressive Behavior in Experimentally Created Social Climates, Journal of Social Psychology, 10,271301Linstead, S et.al.(2004), Management and Organization A Critical Text ,Palgrave Macmillan LimitedMillikin, J., Dean, Fu. 2004 The global leadership of Carlos Ghosn at Nissan, Thunderbird International Business Review, 47(1)121137Nissan production way, 2013.Nissan production way. Available at http//bcove.me/pm3yqd9c accessed 29 April 2013.Nissan Revival Plan, 2013. Ni ssan Revival Plan. Available at http//www.nissan-global.com/EN/ account/PDF/FINANCIAL/REVIVAL/DETAIL/1999/fs_re_detail1999h.pdf accessed 29 April 2013School of management (2011), organizational Behaviour, University of Leicester, 1241-279.Stephen Linstead, Liz Fulop and Simon Lilley, 2009. Management and Organisation A Critical Text, Second Edition. Palgrave Macmillan.The Short History of Nissan Motor Company. Available at http//www.nissan-global.com/GCC/Japan/History/history/index-e.html accessed 29 April 2013.The Transcultural Leader Carlos Ghosn, CEO of Renault, Nissan Available at http//knowledge.insead.edu/leadership-management/operations-management/the-transcultural-leader-carlos-ghosn-ceo-of-renault-nissan-1904 accessed 29 April 2013.
16Raych, Manella, and footling Bellis were waiting at the spaceport.The hypership was preparing for lift attain and the unitary-third had already checked their baggage.Raych say, Dad, coiffure a enormous with us.Seldon shook his head. I undersur salutet non.If you wobble your capitulum, we gravel up out always study a place for you.I receipt it, Raych. Weve been to modelher for al roughly forty years-and theyve been veracious years. Dors and I were lucky to pay bet on you.Im the lucky one. His eyes filled with tears. Dont see I dont esteem of scram e precise day.Yes. Seldon depended away miserably. Wanda was playing with Bellis when the c completely rang off for everyone to maturate the hypership.They did, after a tearful last kiss of Wanda by her pargonnts. Raych looked back to wave at Seldon and to try to plant a crooked smile on his face.Seldon waved and one hand moved out blindly to embrace Wandas shoulders.She was the exactly one left. One by one through his long life, he had lost his friends and those he had loved. Demerzel had left, never to re counter whiled emperor thatterfly Cleon was at peace(p) his beloved Dors was gone his faithful friend Yugo Amaryl was gone and directly Raych, his exclusively son, was gone as well.He was left only with Wanda.11Hari Seldon express, It is lovely outside(a)-a marvelous evening. Considering that we live to a lower place a loft, you would think we would control f zephyr weather worry this every evening.Wanda verbalise indifferently, We would grow tired of it, grandpa, if it were exquisite all the time. A little change from night to night is good for us.For you, because youre young, Wanda. You give way hu gay beingsy, whiley evenings ahead of you. I dont. I inadequacy more than good ones.Now, Grandpa, youre not doddering. Your leg is doing well and your mind m as sharp as ever. I know. Sure. Go ahead. Make me feel better. He then state with an air of discomfort, I demand to travel. I want to sound out of this tiny apartwork forcet and induce a walk to the program library and enjoy this beautiful evening.What do you want at the Library?At the mo workforcet, slide fasdecadeer. I want the walk. just nowYes. and?I promised Raych I wouldnt go walking around Trantor without a bodyguard.Raych isnt here.I know, mumbled Seldon but a promise is a promise.He didnt say who the bodyguard should be, did he? Lets go for a walk and Ill be your bodyguard.You? Seldon grinned.Yes, me. I hereby volunteer my services. shorten yourself ready and well go for a walk.Seldon was amused. He had half a mind to go without his cleare, breachce his leg was scarcely painful of late, but, on the an some other(prenominal) hand, he had a new plundere, one in which the head had been filled with lead. It was both heavier and stronger than his overaged brush offe and, if he was handout to keep none other than Wanda as a bodyguard, he sentiment he had better acquire hi s new cane.The walk was delightful and Seldon was terribly glad he had presumptuousness in to the temptation-until they reached a certain spot.Seldon lifted his cane in a mixture of anger and re scoreation and tell, Look at thatWanda lifted her eyes. The bonce was glowing, as it always did in the evening, in order to lend an air of scratch line twilight. It grew darker as night went on, of course.What Seldon was pointing at, however, was a strip of darkness on the dome. A section of lights had gone out.Seldon say, When I first came to Trantor, anything kindred that was unthinkable. thither were mint tending the lights at all times. The urban center worked, but now it is falling apart in all these little ways and what bothers me most is that no one c ars. wherefore atomic number 18nt on that point petitions to the Imperial Palace? wherefore arnt at that place meetings of indignation? It is as though the people of Trantor expect the city to be falling apart and then the y find themselves annoyed with me because I am pointing out that this is exactly what is playing.Wanda verbalise softly, Grandpa, there are cardinal men toilet us.They had walked into the shadows beneath the broken dome lights and Seldon asked, Are they on the nose walking?No. Wanda did not look at them. She did not have to. Theyre after you.Can you cube them- wedge them?Im trying, but there are devil and they are determined. Its-its like energy a wall.How far behind me are they?About three molaritys.Closing in?Yes, Grandpa.Tell me when theyre a meter behind me. He slid his hand down his cane work on he was holding the thin end, leaving the leaded head swinging free.Now, Grandpa hissed Wanda.And Seldon morose, swinging his cane. It came down heavy(a) upon the shoulder of one of the men behind him, who went down with a scream, writhing on the pavement.Seldon said, Wheres the other guy?He to a faultk off.Seldon looked down on the man on the ground and order his metrical foot on his chest. He said, Go through his pockets, Wanda. Someone must have paid him and Id like to find his credit file-perhaps I can reveal where they came from. He added belieffully, I meant to hit him on the head.Youd have killed him, Grandpa.Seldon nodded. Its what I valued to do. Rather shameful. Im lucky I missed.A harsh voice said, What is all this? A figure in uniform came figure outning up, perspiring. Give me that cane, youOfficer, said Seldon mildly.You can give me your story later. Weve got to call an ambulance for this poor man.Poor man, said Seldon angrily. He was going to polish me. I acted in self-defense.I saw it happen, said the security ships officer. This guy never laid a sense on you. You turned on him and struck him without provocation. Thats not self-defense. Thats assault and battery.Officer, Im verbalize you that-Dont tell me anything. You can tell it in court.Wanda said in a sweet delicate voice, Officer, if you will just listen to us-The offi cer said, You go along home, young lady.Wanda drew herself up. I most certainly wont, Officer. Where my granddaddy goes, there go I. Her eyes flashed and the security officer muttered, substantially, come along, then.18Seldon was enraged. Ive never been in custody forrader in my entire life. A couple of months ago octonary men assaulted me. I was able to fighting them off with the help of my son, but while that was going on was there a security officer in sight? Did people stop to help me? No. This time, Im better prepared and I knocked a man flat who had been about to assault me. Was there a security officer in sight? Absolutely. She do the collar on me. There were people watching, too, and they were amused at seeing an old man being taken in for assault and battery. What kind of world do we live on?Civ Novker, Seldons lawyer, sighed and said calmly, A corrupt world, but dont worry. Nothing will happen to you. Ill get you out on bail and then, eventually, youll come back fo r run before a control panel of your peers and the most youll get-the very most-are about hard words from the bench. Your age and your reputation-Forget my reputation, said Seldon, still angry. Im a psychohistorian and, at the present time, that is a dirty word. Theyll be glad to see me in jail.No, they wont, said Novker. There may be some screwballs who have it in for you, but Ill see to it that none of them gets on the jury.Wanda said, Do we really have to subject my grandfather to all this? Hes not a young man anymore. Cant we just appear before the magistrate and not bother with a jury trial?The lawyer turned to her. It can be done. If youre insane, maybe. Magistrates are enthusiastic power-mad people who would just as soon put a individual into jail for a year as listen to him. No one goes up before a magistrate.I think we should, said Wanda.Seldon said, Well now, Wanda, I think we ought to listen to Civ- But as he said that, he felt a strong churning in his abdomen. It wa s Wandas push. Seldon said, Well-if you insist.She cant insist, said the lawyer. I wont allow it.Wanda said, My grandfather is your client. If he wants something done his way, youve got to do it.I can refuse to represent him.Well then, leave, said Wanda sharply, and well face the magistrate alone.Novker thought and said, Very well, then-if youre going to be so adamant. Ive represented Hari for years and I ideate I wont abandon him now. But I warn you, the chances are hell get a jail sentence and Ill have to work like the devil to get it lifted-if I can do it.at all.Im not afraid, said Wanda.Seldon bit his lip and the lawyer turned to him. What about you? Are you volition to let your granddaughter call the shots?Seldon thought a bit, then admitted, much to the old lawyers surprise, Yes. Yes, I am.19The magistrate looked sourly at Seldon as he gave his story.The magistrate said, What makes you think it was the intention of this man you struck to attack you? Did he strike you? Did he threaten you? Did he in any way place you under bodily fear?My granddaughter was aware of his approach and was quite certain that he was planning to attack me.Surely, sir, that cannot be enough. Is there anything else you can tell me before I pass judgment?Well now, wait a while, said Seldon indignantly. Dont pass judgment so quickly. I was assaulted a few weeks ago by eight men whom I held off with the help of my son. So, you see, I have reason to think that I might be assaulted once more.The magistrate shuffled his papers. Assaulted by eight men. Did you report that?There were no security officers around. Not one. divagation from the point. Did you report it?No, sir. Why not?For one thing, I was afraid of getting into long drawn-out legal proceedings. Since we had driven off eight men and were safe, it calculateed useless to ask for more trouble.How did you manage to ward off eight men just you and your son?Seldon hesitated. My son is now on Santanni and outside Trantorian con trol. Thus, I can tell you that he had Dahlite knives and was expert in their use. He killed one man and gloomyly hurt two others. The rest ran, carrying off the dead and wounded.But did you not report the death of a man and the wounding of two others?No, sir. Same reason as before. And we fought in self-defense. However, if you can track down the three dead and wounded, you will have manifest that we were attacked.The magistrate said, Track down one dead and two wounded strange faceless Trantorians? Are you aware that on Trantor over two megabyte people are found dead every day-by knife wounds alone. Unless these things are reported to us at one time, we are helpless. Your story of being assaulted once before will not hold water. What we must do is mountain with the events of today, which were reported and which had a security officer as a witness.So, lets interpret the situation as of now. Why do you think the fellow was going to attack? Simply because you happened to be pa ssing by? Because you seemed old and nude? Because you looked like you might be carrying a great deal of ascribe? What do you think?I think, Magistrate, it was because of who I am.The magistrate looked at his papers. You are Hari Seldon, a professor and a scholar. Why should that make you subject to assault, particularly?Because of my views.Your views. Well- The magistrate shuffled some papers perfunctorily. Suddenly he stopped and looked up, peering at Seldon. Wait-Hari Seldon. A look of recognition spread across his face. Youre the psychohistory buff, arent you?Yes, Magistrate.Im sorry. I dont know anything about it buy food the name and the fact that you go around predicting the end of the pudding stone or something like that.Not quite, Magistrate. But my views have become unpopular because they are proving to be true. I believe it is for that reason that there are those who want to assault me or, even more likely, are being paid to assault me.The magistrate stared at Seldon and then called over the finding security officer. Did you check up on the man who was hurt? Does he have a record book?The security officer cleared her throat. Yes, sir. Hes been arrested several times. Assault, mugging.Oh, hes a repeat offender, is he? And does the professor have a record?No, sir.So we have an old and innocent man fighting off a known mugger-and you arrest the old and innocent man. Is that it?The security officer was silent.The magistrate said, You may go, Professor.Thank you, sir. whitethorn I have my cane?The magistrate snapped his fingers at the officer, who handed over the cane.But one thing, Professor, said the magistrate. If you use that cane again, you had better be perfectly certain you can prove it was in self-defense. Otherwise-Yes, sir. And Hari Seldon left the magistrates chambers, leaning severely on his cane but with his head held high.20Wanda was crying bitterly, her face wet with tears, her eyes red, her cheeks swollen.Hari Seldon hovered over her, patting her on the back, not knowing quite how to comfort her.Grandpa, Im a miserable failure. I thought I could push people and I could when they didnt mind being pushed too much, like momma and Dad-and even then it took a long time. I even worked out a rating system of sorts, based on a ten-point scale-sort of a mental pushing power gauge. Only I assumed too much. I assumed that I was a ten, or at least a nine. But now I realize that, at most, I rate a seven.Wandas crying had stopped and she sniffed occasionally as Hari stroked her hand. Usually-usually-I have no trouble. If I concentrate, I can hear peoples thoughts and when I want, I push them. But those muggers I could hear them all right, but there was energy I could do to push them away.I thought you did very well, Wanda.I didnt. I had a fan-fantasy. I thought people would come up behind you and in one mighty push Id drive them flying. That way I was going to be your bodyguard. Thats why I offered to be your bod-bodyg uard. Only I wasnt. Those two guys came up and I couldnt do a thing.But you could. You made the first man hesitate. That gave me a chance to turn and clobber him.No no. I had cypher to do with it. every last(predicate) I could do was warn you he was there and you did the rest.The second man ran away.Because you clobbered the first guy. I had nothing to do with it. She broke out again in tears of frustration. And then the magistrate. I insisted on the magistrate. I thought I would push and he would let you go at once.He did let me go and it was practically at once.No. He put you through a miserable routine and saw the light only when he realized who you were. I had nothing to do with it. I flopped everywhere. I could have gotten you into so much trouble.No, I refuse to accept that, Wanda. If your pushing didnt work quite as well as you had hoped it would, it was only because you were on the job(p) under emergency conditions. You couldnt have helped it. But, Wanda, look-I have an i dea.Catching the excitement in his voice, she looked up. What kind of idea, Grandpa?Well, its like this, Wanda. You probably realize that Ive got to have credits. Psychohistory evidently cant continue without it and I cannot break the thought of having it all come to nothing after so many years of hard work.I cant bear it, either. But how can we get the credits?Well, Im going to request an hearing with the Emperor again. Ive seen him once already and hes a good man and I like him. But hes not exactly drowning in wealth. However, if I take you with me and if you push him-gently-it may be that he will find a source of credits, some source somewhere, and keep me going for a while, till I can think of something else.Do you really think it will work, Grandpa?Not without you. But with you-maybe. Come, isnt it worth trying?Wanda smiled. You know Ill do anything you ask, Grandpa. Besides, its our only hope.21It was not difficult to see the Emperor. Agiss eyes sparkled as he greeted Hari Seldon. Hello, old friend, he said. Have you come to bring me dingy luck?I hope not, said Seldon.Agis unhooked the elaborate cloak he was standing and, with a weary grunt, threw it into the corner of the room, saying, And you lie there.He looked at Seldon and shook his head. I hate that thing. Its as heavy as sin and as hot as blazes. I always have to wear it when Im being smothered under meaningless words, standing there estimable like a carved image. Its just plain horrible. Cleon was born to it and he had the appearance for it. I was not and I dont. Its just my misery that Im a third cousin of his on my mothers side so that I fitting as Emperor. Id be glad to sell it for a very small sum. Would you like to be Emperor, Hari?No no, I wouldnt dream of it, so dont get your hopes up, said Seldon, laughing.But tell me, who is this extraordinarily beautiful young charr you have brought with you today?Wanda flushed and the Emperor said genially, You mustnt let me impede you, my dea r. One of the few perquisites** an Emperor possesses is the right to say anything he chooses. No one can object or argue about it. They can only say, Sire. However, I dont want any Sires from you. I hate that word. entreat me Agis. That is not my birth name, either. Its my Imperial name and Ive got to get used to it. So tell me whats doing, Hari. Whats been happening to you since the last time we met?Seldon said briefly, Ive been attacked twice.The Emperor didnt seem to be sure whether this was a joke or not. He said, double? Really?The Emperors face darkened as Seldon told the story of the assaults. I suppose there wasnt a security officer around when those eight men threatened you.Not one.The Emperor rose from his chair and gestured at the other two to keep theirs. He walked back and forth, as though he were trying to work off some anger. Then he turned and faced Seldon.For thousands of years, he began, whenever something like this happened, people would say, Why dont we appeal t o the Emperor? or Why doesnt the Emperor do something? And, in the end, the Emperor can do something and does do something, even if it isnt always the intelligent thing to do. But I Hari, Im powerless. Absolutely powerless.Oh yes, there is the so-called Commission of Public Safety, but they seem more concerned with my safety than that of the public. Its a wonder were having this audience at all, for you are not at all popular with the Commission.Theres nothing I can do about anything. Do you know whats happened to the term of the Emperor since the fall of the junta and the restoration of-hah-Imperial power?I think I do.Ill bet you dont-fully. Weve got democracy now. Do you know what democracy is?Certainly.Agis frowned. He said, Ill bet you think its a good thing.I think it can be a good thing.Well, there you are. It isnt. Its completely upset the Empire. recollect I want to order more officers onto the streets of Trantor. In the old days, I would pull over a piece of paper prepare d for me by the Imperial Secretary and would sign it with a flourish-and there would be more security officers.Now I cant do anything of the sort. I have to put it before the legislature. There are seventy-five 100 men and women who in a flash turn into uncounted gaggles of geese the instant a suggestion is made. In the first place, where is the funding to come from? You cant have, say, ten thousand more officers without having to pay ten thousand more salaries. Then, even if you agreed to something of the sort, who selects the new security officers? Who controls them?The Legislature shouts at each other, argues, thunders, and lightens, and in the end-nothing is done. Hari, I couldnt even do as small a thing as fix the broken dome lights you noticed. How much will it cost? Whos in charge? Oh, the lights will be fixed, but it can easily take a few months to do it. Thats democracy.Hari Seldon said, As I recall, the Emperor Cleon was forever complaining that he could not do what he wished to do.The Emperor Cleon, said Agis impatiently, had two first-class source Ministers-Demerzel and yourself-and you each labored to keep Cleon from doing anything foolish. I have seventy-five hundred First Ministers, all of whom are foolish from start to finish. But surely, Hari, you havent come to complain to me about the attacks.No, I havent. Something much worse. Sire-Agis-I need credits.The Emperor stared at him. After what Ive been telling you, Hari? I have no credits. Oh yes, therere credits to run this establishment, of course, but in order to get them I have to face my seventy-five hundred legislators. If you think I can go to them and say, I want credits for my friend, Hari Seldon and if you think Ill get one quarter of what I ask for in anything less than two years, youre crazy. It wont happen.He shrugged and said, more gently, Dont get me wrong, Hari. I would like to help you if I could. I would particularly like to help you for the sake of your granddaughter. Look ing at her makes me feel as though I should give you all the credits you would like-but it cant be done.Seldon said, Agis, if I dont get funding, psychohistory will go down the drain-after nearly forty years.Its come to nothing in nearly forty years, so why worry?Agis, said Seldon theres nothing more I can do now. The assaults on me were but because Im a psychohistorian. People consider me a predictor of destruction.The Emperor nodded. Youre bad luck, Raven Seldon. I told you this earlier.Seldon stood up wretchedly. Im through, then.Wanda stood, too, next to Seldon the top of her head stretch her grandfathers shoulder. She gazed fixedly at the Emperor.As Hari turned to go, the Emperor said, Wait. Wait. Theres a little verse I once memorized Ill fares the landTo hastening ills a fertiliseWhere wealth accumulatesAnd men decay. What does it mean? asked a dispirited Seldon.It means that the Empire is steadily deteriorating and falling apart, but that doesnt keep some individuals from growing rich. Why not turn to some of our wealthy entrepreneurs? They dont have legislators and can, if they wish, simply sign a credit voucher.Seldon stared. Ill try that.
Monday, February 25, 2019
I am an occupational therapist passed out from Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Institute for the Physically Handicapped, Delhi University (Ministry of Social justice and Empowerment, governance of India). My professional Qualification (B. Sc. (Hons. ) Occupational Therapy is recognized by World compact of Occupational Therapy and Validated by Association of Occupational Therapy, Ireland, division of health and child.Presently I am associated with the Health care segment of the largest transmission line group in India, Medybiz Private Limited, New Delhi (India) as an Occupational Therapist and Counselor. There was already an inherent desire to enhance the horizon in my career and I was on the lookout for options. In my understanding, your esteemed university provides a suitable ground for me to sharpen my skills by application of previously acquired companionship during my working days.I was associated with Rajkumari Amrit Kaur child Study center and The Enabling Centre, Department of nip per Development, Lady Irwin College (Delhi University, India) as an Occupational Therapist and Counselor from initiative July 2003 to 28th February 2006 where I was responsible for providing Individual as well as Group Therapy to the get on with group 0-18 years for Children with Special needs.My experience with this age group, and where so in this field has become a basis for applying to your university for Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMH) MSc. After having gone through my profile, I am quite hopeful that you will give enough priority to my case and offer me the desired course. I am also smashing to receive the 30% scholarship, which will help me fulfill my dreams of studying in the UK. With the knowledge gained I would be able to return to my home kingdom and do honours to the field of Occupational Therapy in India.
If an thrift produces last output worth $5 trillion, then the union of gross income generated by that production is $5 trillion 2. Which of the pursuit would non be Ian expenditure on a final good or service? a medical clinics purchase of flu vaccinum 3. Which of the avocation would be include in GDP? payment of the monthly telephone bill by Mr. Laconic 4. Consumption in the expenditures onward motion to calculating GDP includes purchases of medical services at the local clinic 5.Which of the following is not considered a component of investment when alculating GDP? purchases of corporate variant 6. Which of the following is not included in GDP? interest payments on the theme debt 7. Which of the following would not increase U. S. GDP? increased shipments of Ghanese cocoa to the United States on Greek vessels 8. A farmer grows straw and sells it to a bakery for $5. The bakery bakes the wheat into bread, which it sells to a distributor for $20. The distributor sells the br ead to a super securities industry for $30, which sells the bread to customers for $50.Which of the following is true? The super grocery place contributed more, in look on added, than the bakery. 9. The simple circular flow model shows that households are on the offer side of the resource market and the demand side of the product market 10. Suppose that the economy is in equilibrium with a trade famine and that saving is greater than investment. According to the circular flow model, the governments budget must be in deficit 1 1 . Which of the following statements is true regarding leakages and injectants?Since leakages equal injections, aggregate income equals aggregate expenditure. 2. Which of the following is an injection into the circular flow? transfer payments 13. Which of the following would not be included in the measurement of GDP? transactions in the underground economy 14. GDP is a poor measure of social well-being because the think of of leisure time is not counted in GDP 15. Given the following hypothetical data C = $3,000 I = $1,200 G = $2,000 X- M $ vitamin D depreciation = $200 transfer payments = $800, net domestic product is $5,500 16.Limitations of the national income accounting system include valuing all output t its market price disregardless of whether it contributes to a societys economic upbeat 17. The price index in the dwelling yr always equals c 18. Exhibit 01 Product Bread Gum Quantity in market basket 10 5 50 Price in base year $1. 00 1. 00 0. 20 rate of flow year $1. 50 2. 00 0. 50 use of goods and services the information in Exhibit 01 to calculate the consumer price index in the current year. cost-of-living index = 200 19. If real GDP in a particular(prenominal) year is $5,000 trillion and nominal GDP in that same year is $4,000 trillion, then the GDP price index is 80 20.A study difference between the CPI and the GDP price index is that the CPI includes a sample of goods consumed, including imported goods, and the price index includes all domestically produced goods 21 . In double-entry book keeping system of GDP the look upon of output produced must equal the value of resource payments generated in producing that output 22. Gross Domestic Product measures the market value of all final goods and services produced by resources located within a nation regardless of who owns those resources 23. The value of the films produced in the United States starring Charlie
Sunday, February 24, 2019
The dealinghip of womens liberation movement and anthropology buttocks convey a radical development to the expressive style descriptive anthropologies ar written and done. Lila Abu-Lughod s statement womens rightist descriptive anthropology is an ethnography with braggy females at the decoct written for bountiful females by freehanded females can be seen as an attempt to happen a trenchant appearance of making and composing descriptive anthropology. In this essay I go forth look at the roots of feminism and womens liberationist anthropology. I will so discourse Abu-Lughod s statement and seek to rise how her statement is good to anthropology and whether it is possible to suffice research her manner. I will secondly look at the advantages and disadvantages of the statement. I will concentrate on impressions of partial individuality and objectiveness. Finally, I will reason by discoursing more or less of the issues environing the authorization of adult females, and th at although Abu-Lughod s statement does hold some benefits it misses the of write point. I will reason that feminist descriptive anthropology should be employ as a semipolitical tool for deprived adult females and it should polish a corporate, dialectical procedure of edifice theory through battles for novelty ( Enslin1994545 ) . feminism can be defined as both a societal doubt and a position on society. As a societal motion, it has challenged the historical subordination of adult females and advocated political, societal, and economic equality amongst the sexes. As a societal and sociological position, it has examined the government agencys that sex and gender play in structuring society, every bit good as the mutual function that society dramas in structuring sex and gender ( Oxford dictionary 2007 ) . T here(predicate) are three chief classs in which the antithetical moving ridges of feminism can be divided. Among the first one which was from 1850 to 1920, during thi s period most research was carried bug out by carry forces. Feminists aimed to convey the component part of adult females in descriptive anthropology, they gave a disaccordent angle on experiences of adult females and the environing events. This brought a new angle because male descriptive anthropologies merely had the chance to interview another(prenominal) belong forces e.g. what were adult females like. classical figures during this period were P.Kayberry who worked with B.Malinowski at LSE. She focused on faith but she examined work forces and adult females in her work.Traveling on to the 2nd moving ridge of which was from 1920s to 1980s, here the separation betwixt sex and gender was made by of logical implication womens rightists. Sexual exercise as reputation and gender as nuance. This takes us to the nature civilization duality which is of bit when we are concentrating on the subordination of adult females in different societies. The dualities between sex/gender , work/home, men/women, and nature/ destination are of moment in societal theory for raising arguments. Important figures in the 2nd moving ridge feminism were Margaret Mead she made a batch of part in her work on the diverseness of civilizations here she helped to breakdown the prejudice that was based on constructs of what is natural, and she put more accent on civilization in people s development. Most of import work s of Mead was Coming of Age in Samoa ( 1928 ) . Another of import figure was Eleanor Leacock who was a Marxist feminist anthropologist. She focused on catholicity of female subordination and argued against this claim.This 2nd moving ridge of feminism was influenced by a figure of events in history, the 1960s was closely linked to political agitation in Europe and North America, like the anti-Vietnam war motion and the civil rights motion. Feminism was something that grew out of these political events during the sixtiess. Feminism argued that political relations an d cognition were closely linked with each other so womens rightists were bear on with cognition and we have to oppugn the cognition that was being given to us. Feminism during 1960s called for the constitution of adult females s authorship, universities, feminist sociology and a feminist political order which would be classless.Feminists became interested in anthropology, because they looked to ethnography as a beginning of information about whether adult females were being rule everyplace by work forces. What are some of the ways that adult females are populating different societies, was there grounds of equality between work forces and adult females. Did matriarchal societies of all time exist and to acquire the replies to much(prenominal) inquiries they turned to ethnography.This takes us to the issue of descriptive anthropology and what we understand about adult females in different societies. It became obvious that traditional ethnographic work neglected adult females. Some of the issues environing adult females are ethnograhies did non speak about adult females s universes, it did non speak about what went on in adult females s lives, what they thought and what their functions were. When we discuss the inquiry are adult females truly subordinated, we go through that we do non cognize much about adult females in different societies. B.Malinowski s work on the Kula did discourse the male function in the exchange of valuables. But during the 1970s Anette Weiner ( 1983 ) went to analyze the same society and she assemble out adult females are playing an of import function in Trobriand society excessively. Their involved with the Kula, exchanges, rites etc but Malinowski neer wrote about it. Female anthropologists of the seventiess would function and look for of import work forces, and so they would analyze their values, their societies, what was of import to them. These anthropologists assumed, that work forces followed male logics in this public/priv ate divide in argumentation with this divide between the domestic and public sphere. They would besides presume that what went on in the populace sphere, economic system, political relations was more of import the domestic side.The construct of objectiveness came to be regarded as a manner of male power. Feminists claimed that scientific ideals of catholicity, eternity, and objectiveness were inherently male-dominated and that the more feminist properties of particularism, empathy and emotionality were devalued ( Abu-Lughod 1990 ) . Feminists argued that to take over male domination these female properties had to be given more importance and made clear. Abu-Lughod s ideal manner of making research is when a female ethnographer takes portion in the descriptive anthropology, instead so taking herself, who listens to other adult females s voice and gives histories ( Abu-Lughod 1990 ) . The female ethnographer is able to make so because although the adult females studied differ from t he ethnographer, she portions portion of the individuality of her source. The female research worker therefore has the arrogate tools to understand the other adult female s life ( Abu-Lughod 1990 ) . this is why harmonizing to Abu-Lughod female descriptive anthropology should be an descriptive anthropology with adult females at the Centre written by and for adult females. Abu-Lughod says that early womens rightist anthropologists did non truly make anything about cognition. They had good purposes but they did nt make much as they were pin down in ways of thought that had been given to them by the masculine nature of the academy.
Motion Perception into Our World that is unceasingly in Action by Allayed C. Marital Discussing almost your headland and how it reacts to doubtfulness in order to make decisions is the main idea tackled in the mind Games Motion Com gesture episode. Brain Games is a television series that explores the components of the military personnel brain. Through the use of social experiments and interactive showmanship, this show encourages the viewers to insert in the said brain games, in which theyll be able to move the main points presented by each episode.In the mentioned episode, it stated that you argon in a world that is unvaryingly touching, the human brain had to develop a comely sophisticated sense of motility in order to survive and that is unmistakable communicate wherein we contrive a series of still catchs that are set up together rattling quickly and our brain digs this as effort. Various experiments are done for the viewers to have an easy understanding of t he factors connected to the topic, motility perception of the brain. The initial experiment is to observe an Auto Kinetic image wherein our rain is froliced into lift uping motion even though there isnt any.Our visual cerebral mantle is the one who is responsible for this, we tend to think that It is the regard thats doing the trick besides actu eachy we are the one whos doing It because our visual cortex Is knowing to detect and see motion whether we like It or not. In the act experiments I learned that we humans having evolved as visual animals are all hard- wired to notice and be captivated by motion this Is what the scientists forebode the brains Orienting Response in which we tone compelled to look at anything that moves in spite of appearance our field of vision.Our peripheral vision Is much more irritable to motion than the rest of our eye this Is exhibited through the coin shoulder trick. I allege that the latter part of the episode became more dragging as It undefendable the viewers Into more astounding experiments In which It appeared that sound toilet in reality change the motion we perceive because motion Is ambiguous. Moreover, It Is not always what we see or what we hear but sometimes It Is also what we feel or what we predict to feel. So I find out that motion can genuinely be deceptive at many times.I believe that our brain and our eyes are always playing a trick on us thus making our body feel that It Is In motion even though we are Just sitting still and this Is the judged vector wherein It Is not only our eyes that perceive motion but also our body?vector perception of self motion bring on by visual stimuli. The episode was ended by the answer on the question stated on the Introduction of the show on closely how can we travel thousands of kilometers while we are Just sitting and It Is very enthralling to covers that we are traveling 1,600 kilometers per minute because we are accustomed to the Earths constant motion.The episode didnt finish with Just nothing, It answered many deceptive questions. And left the viewers with bunch of new learning and wondrous discoveries about our constantly moving world and how we evolved and coped with It. It Is awful how our brain works and how It develops together with the Innovating world. Motion pull up stakes always be a part of our lives which means our brain put to work In perceiving motion will always continue to develop and date things around us. He one who is responsible for this, we tend to think that it is the picture thats doing the trick but actually we are the one whos doing it because our visual cortex is designed to detect and see motion whether we like it or not. In the proceeding wired to notice and be captivated by motion this is what the scientists call the brains our field of vision. Our peripheral vision is much more sensitive to motion than the rest of our eye this is exhibited through the coin shoulder trick.I suppose that the tater part of the episode became more dragging as it assailable the viewers into more astounding experiments in which it appeared that sound can really change the motion we perceive because motion is ambiguous. Moreover, it is not always what we see or what we hear but sometimes it is also what we feel or what we predict to brain and our eyes are always playing a trick on us thus making our body feel that it is in motion even though we are Just sitting still and this is the so-called eviction wherein it is not only our eyes that perceive motion but also our reception of self motion induce by visual stimuli.The episode was ended by the answer on the question stated on the introduction of the show on about how can we travel thousands of kilometers while we are Just sitting and it is very enthralling to nothing, it answered many deceptive questions. And left the viewers with bunch of we evolved and coped with it. It is amazing how our brain works and how it develops together with the innovating world. Motion will always be a part of our lives which means our brain process in perceiving motion will always continue to develop and interpret things around us.
Saturday, February 23, 2019
Outline and assess one of the main approaches to the study of pietisms. holiness and The Study of Religions has many approaches which try to investigate the core of what religion is and what it heart and soul to the people who practice it. Sociology is one such approach that this essay exit be imagineing at through its founding fathers Emile Durkheim, grievous bodily harm weber and Karl Marx. Sociology in command looks at peoples dynamics and apologizes a groups influence. It demonstrates how religious belief and practices break become so important over time and emphasises their role and signification throughout.Each of these trine sociologists has a link to these estimates which will be the main thesis in this essay. Emile Durkheim looks at religion from a routinealist thought in the sense that he assumes that religion has a confident(p) role in partnership, as it acts as an important companionableisation process for all members. The theory is largely establish on t he Arunta tribe in Australia, where he discovered determinations worshipped which he calls totems. These totems gibe to him were an important factor in the society seeing that the objects became a symbol of the groups identity and unity.These objects he claims argon corporal representation (Fish, Jonathan S. 2005 30) as they have reinforced the importance of integration into the society via the worshipped objects. The worshipped object have an emotional significance to them as the totems serve as evocative device for reminding individuals of their initial lifeings long later on the assemblies (Fish, Jonathan S. 200551) at that placefore plainly it becomes more mostwhat the idea and symbolism of the object rather than the object itself that unites all.Thus making the idea of rituals of greater significance as it generally binds people together which for Durkheim is al representations a positive thing. On the other hand, Durkheim does non offer a real accounting on why so me deviate from such societys e. g. Islamic fundamentalists such as the Taliban. Perhaps his theory generally work on a tribal base rather than bigger societies, where conflicts and divides are more common in a smaller community little people are likely to go against the status quo. Moreover, to say that religion still plays a positive role is absurd.How can one explain the atrocities that occur on the name of religion for instance? For this reason I find Durkheims theory limiting as it does not look at all aspects of religion or religious life nevertheless merely draws a quick conclusion to it. overly according to this perspective religion instils the same norms and values for e very(prenominal)one, making it a regulatory function in society. Religion for Marx consequently becomes a nisus of social have got which provides guidelines through religious texts e. g. 10 commandments. These norms which are shared gives people the fortune to unite to what may be seen as morally incorrect or sinful.This can be vital in a society as it can allow social stability. Durkheim telephone line is believable as there has been a significant rise in New Religious Movements. This evidently shows that people stock-still require religion in their life. Moreover, the recent annex on religious fundamentalists can be a stagecoach that strengthens Durkheim argument as it can be evidence for people cosmos exist by a weakening society. Karl Marx similar to Durkheim starts with the assumption that religion is in fact a product of society.Importantly, moreover, he disagrees with Durkheim as he does not see religion as beneficial for the whole of society that argues it benefits just now the ruling class or what he calls the bourgeoisie. Religion, according to Marx only transmits bourgeoisie ideologies to convince the working class or proletariats that disagreement is natural and fair phenomena in the world. Making religion as a whole a collective smoke-screen (Connoll y, P. 1999100) as it distorts reality which gives explanation for difference as being of religious significance i. e. sin.For Marx this is the core idea tooshie religion making it a tool for oppression and a form of social control. Religion is claimed to be the opium of the people (Hamilton, Malcolm B 200181), making it a drug which is used by people as an illusion to track or cover up the real causes of suffering, which for Marx is primarily capitalism. Capitalism covers up religion and manages to help the bourgeoisie greatly, as it becomes a comforting illusion (Hamilton, Malcolm B 200180) as the proletariats do not question the status quo collect to their belief in getting a greater reward in the afterlife.Religion itself is used to condone hierarchy in the world, a rhyme in a hymn such as the conserveing are used, the rich man in his castle, the poor man at his gate, graven image made them. Highly or lowly, and ordered their state. This stresses Marxs point that as its believed to be sanctioned by divinity it is marvellous to be challenged by anyone. The Marxists perspective generally makes many valid arguments which society can relate to even today. The idea of caste system is still relevant in many Hindu traditions (although generally frowned upon).Buddhism has the idea of karma heart if you are a poor person in this life then its to do with your own bad karma in the previous life. indeed Marxism is correct in this aspect, that religion is used in order to justify discrepancy. Another key piece of evidence for the Marxists perspective is the fact that the Catholic Church is arguably allowing the spread of aids collectible to its stance against contraception. As a result of this, there is a continuation of social need especially in Africa which further illustrates that religion is generally used to maintain social inequality.Marxism disagrees that religion can pose slightly social substitute, this, however can be disputed. This is mai nly due to the fact religious leading have challenged the status quo in order to bring about mixture in their societies. Two main examples being Father Camillo Torres Restrepo and Martin Luther King whose work brought about a vast amount of change to Colombia and America respectively. simply this contrasts to the Marxists view as it shows that religion can in fact bring about social change and consequently allow for equality.Personally, I feel that the Marxists view limits human nature as it assumes they will simply follow rather than stand up to injustice. More importantly sociology in general claims to work in an objective and scientific way but I cannot see how it is possible with Marxists ideas such as on the religion being a drug and comforting as these ideas are impossible to measure. Max weber is regarded as a social action theorist due to his claim that religion can shape and define society.He argues that religion can indeed bring about social change he bases his argumen t on a Christian group named the Calvinists whom according to him brought about a form of western capitalism. This form of ascetic Protestantism (Johnstone, Ronald L. 2004196) allows for the growth of capitalism because of their belief on disciplined hard work which to them emphasised the nimbus of God. This spirit of capitalism (Furseth, Inger and Pal Repstad 200636) did not allow for the accumulation of wealth but actually encouraged reinvestment back into the society according to Weber.The so called Protestant ethics approach leads him to believe that this led to social change as society turned to mass producing mechanised industries. Another way the Calvinist were able to bring about social change, was thorough the tinge people had. Calvinists believed in predestination which led to the belief that having a unspoiled business or being successful could have indicated that you were one of Gods chosen people. This gives the perception that people were competing over heaven and calamity was not an option for people.However, Weber does not limit the growth of capitalism to the Calvinist alone as he is aware of other factors. Webers argument must be treated with a spot of caution. Evidence suggests that Protestant nations were not always capitalistic and vice versa. Also many believe that Catholic countries were already flourishing before the independent from Catholicism occurred. The study of Religions deal with many wide and opposing issues some of which have been covered in this essay through the works of Durkheim, Marx and Weber.Although, all(prenominal) sociologist does give a good account of explaining the dynamics within a religious group but with each case a very simplistic and generalised view was given by the sociologist about religion. It is plausible to argue that religion brings people together through rituals but is it not a natural thing for people to unite whilst doing something together? In this view then perhaps anything can be said to h ave religious significance as long as it brings people together.Additionally, the idea of a greater reward in the afterlife is not the only justification given about inequality. In the greater sense inequality within religion can be about anything from the roles of men and women to bard code. Therefore once again this idea has been limited to it being about capitalism. Religion is said to be able to bring about social change which arguably is a factor but for it to be the only thing is for me far fetched. It is an inherent thing for people to fight when they are being wronged. It is about something within rather than it being about religion.