Saturday, August 31, 2019
Our marketing case study refers at the develop of the Italian market of Havaianas flip-flops Description of Product In Brazil Havaianas product is well known (second only to Coca Cola). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a mass market product, a commodity Flip-flops features: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬ ¢ Comfortable Durable Out of time Practical Aesthetically beautiful Cheap Two Mains Markets A traditional segment like beach, leisure and sport A niche segment, the surf market Main Marketing Problems In Italy among consumers only 12. 5% indicated Havaianas as first brand of flip flops designed Find the right market segment considering the competitors Convey to consumers the important attributes, technical and emotional, of the product Targeting The product is suitable for everyone, but especially for consumers aged from 16 to 40 In this range we have identified three main consumers categories Ã¢â¬ ¢ Trendy: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Functional: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Not interested: 10% 75% 15% Swot Analisys OPPORTUNITY Ã¢â¬â Width of the target Ã¢â¬â Ability to create authentic connections with a product rich in meanings Ã¢â¬â Ability to enter niche marketsSTRENGTHS Ã¢â¬â Versatility of the product Ã¢â¬â High Quality (natural materials) Ã¢â¬â Wide range of models -Possibility of limited Editions Product THREATS -Competition indirect and parallel importation of products with low cost (China) -No barriers to entry -Risk of becoming a passing fashion brand -Existence of direct competitors that also produce clothing lines WEAKNESSES Ã¢â¬â Poor presence in some markets Ã¢â¬â Low brand awareness Ã¢â¬â ItÃ¢â¬â¢s absent the perception of the quality of the product by the consumer Ã¢â¬â Seasonality Ã¢â¬â It is not considered a technical productTraditional Market Positioning Market Positioning-Competitors Ã¢â¬ ¢ Reef, the market leader, has a marketing strategy aimed at consumers increasingly sophisticated which seem to communicate a feeling of continuous research and ne ed of something more distinctive Ã¢â¬ ¢ Sundek leverages its production of summer clothing to also sell footwear and flipflops Ã¢â¬ ¢ As flip-flops for the pool, locker room and sports in general brands such as Nike & Adidas provide an higher level of technicality If we consider the Havaianas as a sandal for a night out or generally for living the city, then the competition is with brands such as D&G, Gucci, Prada Market Positioning-Havaianas Havaianas is on the market in a position straddling Functionality and Fashion (impossible for Reef) to a point less Ã¢â¬Å"evolvedÃ¢â¬ of its direct competitor The fashion factor for Havaianas is the ability to sell a cheap product that capture the customers with the history, the sense of freedom and the possibility to express yourself which are the guidelines that, since the beginning, distinguish this productSurf Market Market PositioningCompetitors The competitors, althougth with different placements, stands on the left side of the tabl e aiming to attract customers with their ability to perceive the technical characteristics of the product There are also in this context brands such as Cool that are oriented more to products of high quality and technically suitable for sport Others (in the area at the bottom left) that link instead, quite indistinct between them, to follow the fashion even at the expense of the more technical characteristics Market PositioningHavaianasHavaianas instead focuses its strategy in being able to exploit the high degree of involvement that surfers reserve to this brand and this is the main feature that differentiates it from competitors In the surfing world Havainas is an Ã¢â¬Å"object of worshipÃ¢â¬ now deeply rooted in the tradition and attractiveness of this sport and it is from this that the brands draws its market power Marketing Goals Create an emotional bond with the brand and its history Provide more popularity to the brand so that potential buyers can easily associate the bran d with various modelsBrand Philosophy Extraordinary capabilities that this product has to create a bond between the user and Brazil, the place of origin of the product and always destination of dreams of Italians Havaianas is a product that can be considered Ã¢â¬Å"trueÃ¢â¬ : a long history, a great deal of continuity (the characteristics have remained largely unchanged over time) Natural materials and a process that has within it elements almost Ã¢â¬Å"craftÃ¢â¬ (examples of this are the molds made ? by hand) that make it meaningful and rich of story to tellMarketing Initiatives Havaianas Disco-Bus Twinsbros & Havaianas Surf Team Website Website At the heart of our proposals for Havaianas there is the transformation of the current website in order to create a direct relationship with the consumer and a sense of membership Build a section dedicated to events and parties with a photogallery which shows all connected to the world of Havaianas and itsÃ¢â¬Å"lifestyleÃ¢â¬ Websit e Ã¢â¬Å"Party on Havaianas. itÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¢ The user, in order to participate in various competitions, must enroll communicating his e-mail.This will allow the company to create a large agenda of contacts through which it can communicate the dates of events, promotions and news of any kind in order to create a direct line to the most loyal. For people registered, there will be a further advantage: will be sent by e-mail invitations for the various parties that will be printed and presented at the entrance for a chance to enter for free Ã¢â¬Å"Testimonial for Havaianas Ã¢â¬Å" Ã¢â¬ ¢ The consumers will send their photos with the more strange use that they can make with their flip-flops.The most bizarre and original will be published on the site, with the possibility to be commented on by all users, and the winning photo will become the icon for the communication campaign of Havaianas in the following year Ã¢â¬Å"Twinsbros & Havaianas Surf TeamÃ¢â¬ The TwinsBros Factory has its headquarters in Livorno(Italy) and is structured specifically for the production of high quality surfboards The first goal of the collaboration is to create a set of surfboards and material competition sponsored Havaianas The second one is sponsor a team of surfers who will turn Italy to participate the races of the Italian circuit Twinsbros & Havaianas Surf TeamÃ¢â¬ Return in terms of visibility: Ã¢â¬ ¢ Will be published a banner Havaianas. it on the homepage of the site twinsbros. net Ã¢â¬ ¢ Will be published a banner of TB & Havaianas surf team on the two main Italian surf portals (surfdome. it & surftolive. com) Ã¢â¬ ¢ Will be published articles accompanied by photographs on the same portals above and magazines like Surfer Magazine, SurfUP & SurfNews Ã¢â¬ ¢ Strong visibility in the audience present at the competition with the distribution of gadgets Havaianas Disco-BusÃ¢â¬ The project consists of a disco-bus which during the summer will turn to the most famous locatio ns of the italian summer nightlife (Riccione, Milano Marittima, Porto Cervo, etc. .. ) It will be deprived of the seats and designed with the logo Ã¢â¬Å"HavaianasÃ¢â¬ in and outside so as to produce a strong visual impact on the observer The atmosphere will be tipically brazilian with theme-parties, music, cocktails and various kinds of gadgets provided
Friday, August 30, 2019
AB0603 Business Gone Green Ethical Reasoning Assignment Summary Page| Your name: Chia Xinying| Your Instructor: Dr. Josephine Lang| Seminar Group: 01 Word Count: 1095| Briefly lay out, in bulleted-form in the space provided within this page (i.e., do not elaborate), the content of your write-up in addressing the various criteria in the ethical reasoning rubric.| Criteria| Your points| 1. Specify the ethical issue identified| * Edited women from their Saudi ArabiaÃ¢â¬â¢s catalogue * Goes against Ikea Group and SwedenÃ¢â¬â¢s values * Reflects the pervasive ethical business challenge faced * Further ethical implications such as cultural imperialism| 2. Issue construction: Theoretical perspectives used to elaborate on the issue| * Consequentialism Ã¢â¬â Ethical Egoism: Self interest to garner business support justified * Consequentialism Ã¢â¬â Utilitarianism: Went against view of majority; unjustified * Deontology Ã¢â¬âKantianism: In accordance to moral rules of Saudi Arabia, against principle moral of rights * The Conventional Approach: Follows conventional Saudi ArabiaÃ¢â¬â¢s advertising; justified| 3. Issue construction: Uncertainties inherent in the issue| * Business ethics and corporate social responsibility- search for universal values for international commercial behaviour * Cultural Imperialism Ã¢â¬â Infringement of Islam values- Westerners criticize what they do not understand, it might not be right to criticize IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour * Intent of altering SaudiÃ¢â¬â¢s Catalogue Ã¢â¬â intent remains unknown| 4. Explanation & justification: Effects on key stakeholders| * Ikea as a corporation & its employees- negative repercussions on its reputation and credibility thus imperative for the company to adopt an international guideline * IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s local and global customers- many Swedes were offended by IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s decision * Swedish government Ã¢â¬â have portrayed Sweden as being gender unequal| 5. Conclusion: Values, synthesis, and trade offs| * Important that Ikea stands by its values in all circumstances * In order to send the correct message to its consum ers target * CorporateÃ red light to Ikea to take cultural marketing issues more seriously * Act in the interest of its stakeholders as it serves an indirect representation. * How to reconcile localization with a universal ethics code, however, will remain a challenge for Ikea as well as other corporations.| Checklist | 1. Summary page ____ 2. 900 to 1100 Words Essay ___ 3. List of References ____ | 4. Signed Declaration of Academic Integrity _____ 5. Self-assessed Ethical Reasoning Rubric ______| NANYANG BUSINESS SCHOOL AB0603 Ã¢â¬â Business Gone Green Ethical Reasoning Assignment 1095 words (excluding headers, sub-headers and citations) Name: Chia Xinying Student Matriculation No.: U1110173A Instructor: Dr Josephine Lang Definition of the Ethical issue Ikea, the international furniture company, edited women from their Saudi ArabiaÃ¢â¬â¢s catalogue. This action is deemed ethically inappropriate, as it seems to support gender inequality, which goes against Ikea Group and SwedenÃ¢â¬â¢s values. (Quinn, 2012) Some may argue that Ikea was submitting to pressure from the conservative Islamic state while others say that Ikea was just respecting and being understanding towards Saudi ArabiaÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural standards. This media coverage aptly reflects the pervasive ethical business challenge faced by globalized companies, where it is difficult to find a balance between international commercial behaviour and localization of marketing communications. Moreover, this issue could lead to further ethical implications such as cultural imperialism, which will be discussed further. Theoretical Perspectives to Elaborate on the Issue 1) Principles approach (a) Consequentialism Ã¢â¬â Ethical Egoism Under the egoism approach, IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s decision is justifiable as the move to satisfy Saudi monarchyÃ¢â¬â¢s gender segregation rules (Kayyem, 2012) could be seen as an act of self-interest to garner business support in a male-dominated society. On the other hand, Ikea may have also thought that it is an ethical action to be sensitive to womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights in Saudi Arabia and conform to them. (b) Consequentialism Ã¢â¬â Utilitarianism On the basis that following the view of the majority will produce the best consequence, IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s action is unjustifiable as its action is against the values of Ikea, Sweden and even United Nations (United Nations Millennium Goals). IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s act has thus garnered many bad press and negative reaction from the general public. It has also worsened its own brand image and reputation in the globalized economy. (c) Deontology -Kantianism IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are in accordance to moral rules dictated by the Sharia council as womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights in Saudi Arabia is largely influenced and defined by Islam and tribal customs. However, this conflicts with the moral principle of rights stating that, Ã¢â¬Å" All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights.Ã¢â¬ (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) 2) The Conventional Approach In this final approach, the justification of an act depends on the prevailing norms of the society. In SaudiÃ¢â¬â¢s advertisements, women only appear infrequently. (Quinn, 2012) It is not unusual to see censors blacking out many parts of a womenÃ¢â¬â¢s body in imported magazines. Thus IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s actions will be deemed acceptable to the conventional approach of advertisements in Saudi Arabia. From the different theoretical perspectives above, it clear that the moral rules and principles that Saudi Arabia follows is different from the rest of the world. Thus it really boils down to which values do Ikea chooses to uphold. Uncertainties Inherent in the Issue (a) Business ethics and corporate social responsibilityÃ Being a globalized business, Ikea will be constantly dealing with business ethics issue such as the search for universal values for international commercial behaviour. For example, when you adapt your business practices to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s customs, cultural values and legal requirements, it might be seen as unacceptable in your home markets. (Baker, 2012) Vice versa, if Ikea were to release an unaltered version of the catalogues in Saudi Arabia, would there be a backlash in the Muslim community? This business uncertainty remains a challenge to international companies. (b) Cultural Imperialism Ã¢â¬â Infringement of Islam values Furthermore, there are many misconceptions in the West about womenÃ¢â¬â¢s life in Saudi Arabia (NAFJAN, 2012). Western critics towards women rights in Saudi has Ã¢â¬Å"failed to understand the uniqueness of Saudi SocietyÃ¢â¬ (Zoepf, 2010) and thus should not inflict western values or lifestyles on the Saudi Arabians said journalist Maha Akeei, a frequent critic of SaudiÃ¢â¬â¢s patriarchal customs. (Hiel, 2007) Since Westerners criticize what they do not understand, it might not be right to criticize IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s behaviour when Ikea is being sensitive to their culture. (c) Intent of altering SaudiÃ¢â¬â¢s Catalogue While the reason why Ikea decided to steer away from their progressive Swedish values at home is unclear, it is difficult to ascertain whether the issue was ethical as mentioned earlier. Effects on key stakeholders (a) Ikea as a corporation & its employees Ikea has always been a brand conscious company who has an imageÃ that cares about sustainability and its moral values. The company is named one of the Ã¢â¬ËWorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Most Ethical CompaniesÃ¢â¬â¢ for the fourth consecutive year in 2010. (PRNewswire, 2010) However, the fact that the company could betray the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s values at the drop of a hat, have disappointed many of its customers. Even though Ikea was quick to apologise, its actions already has negative repercussions on its reputation and credibility. (Knowledge@Wharton, 2012) Therefore, it is imperative for the company to adopt an international guideline for its employees to follow to better deal with such dilemmas in the future. The company continued: Ã¢â¬Å"We are now reviewing our routines to safeguard a correct content presentation from a values point of view in the different versions of the IKEA Catalogue worldwide.Ã¢â¬ (Quinn, 2012) (b) IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s local and global customers Moreover, many Swedes were offended by IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s decision, believing that the deletion of women from the Saudi catalogue portrayed their country as being Ã¢â¬Å"gender unequal.Ã¢â¬ (Vasic, 2012) Global customers who are supporters of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights will also think less of Ikea and be less loyal towards Ikea. (c) Swedish government Even though Ikea is a private company, it inevitably projects an image of Sweden around the world. (Swedish equality minister Nyamko Sabuni, CBC News, 2012) An article of the Swedish Institute also further substantiates that Ã¢â¬Å"Ikea is doing more for the image of Sweden than all governmental effortsÃ¢â¬ (WÃ ¤stberg, O., 2009). As mentioned, IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s decision might have portrayed Sweden as being gender unequal, thus it is important for Ikea to uphold SwedenÃ¢â¬â¢s image, as it is a corporate representation of the country. In all, IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s reputation has taken a toll and should operate with the right values expected from its customers. Conclusion Based on the ethical theories of egoism, conventional approach and moral rules in Saudi Arabia, IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are deemed ethical while based on utilitarianism and principles of rights, their actions are deemedÃ unethical. While one can never satisfy everyone, it is important that Ikea stands by its values in all circumstances, (i.e. sent the original Swedish version of the catalogue to Saudi Arabia) especially when it involves a violation of human rights, (Knowledge@Wharton, 2012) to send the correct message to its consumers target. While there might be nuances of cultural imperialism when different stakeholders criticize IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s actions, it once again boils down to understanding both cultures fully before making a stand. To recapitulate, through globalization and communications revolution, it is inevitable for companies to face ethical and cultural conflicts. Ikea reflects the realistic marketing choices confronting many globalized companies around the world, with the companies not hesitating to localize their marketing communications though it is against the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s code of conduct. While IkeaÃ¢â¬â¢s motive remains unknown, it has apologised nonetheless. This lesson learnt serves as a corporate red light to Ikea to take cultural marketing issues more seriously and to act in the interest of its stakeholders as it serves an indirect representation. Also, exactly how to reconcile localization with a universal ethics code, however, will remain a challenge for Ikea as well as other corporations. References: Quinn, B. (2012). Ikea apologises over removal of women from Saudi Arabia catalogue. The Guardian: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/oct/02/ikea-apologises-removing-women-saudi-arabia-catalogue United Nation. (2010) United Nations Millennium Goals http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/ United Nations (2010) The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 1 http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml Baker (2012) IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢s Saudi catalogue apology Ã¢â¬â right and wrong http://www.mallenbaker.net/csr/post.php?id=453 Zoepf, Katherine (2010). Ã¢â¬Å"Talk of WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights Divides Saudi ArabiaÃ¢â¬ . The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/01/world/middleeast/01iht-saudi.html?pagewanted=1&src=me&_r=0 Hiel, Betsy (2007). Ã¢â¬Å"Dhahran women push the veil asideÃ¢â¬ . Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved 19 September 2010. http://triblive.com/x/pittsburghtrib/news/middleeastreports/s_507462.html PRNewswire ( 2010) IKEA Named as One of the Ã¢â¬ËWorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Most Ethical CompaniesÃ¢â¬â¢ for Fourth Consecutive Year in 2010 http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/ikea-named-as-one-of-the-worlds-most-ethical-companies-for-fourth-consecutive-year-in-2010-89384407.html Arabic Knowledge@Wharton. (2012, October 16). Missing the Picture: IKEAÃ¢â¬â¢s Women-free Catalogue in Saudi Arabia Fails to Protect Company Values and Reputation. Retrieved from Arabic Knowledge@Wharton: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/arabic/article.cfm?articleid=2880 Vasic 2012 Ikea Erases Women From Saudi Arabian Catalogue http://blogs.ubc.ca/ninavasic/2012/10/02/15/ Swedish equality minister Nyamko Sabuni, CBC News, 2012 Ikea regrets editing women out of Saudi cataloguehttp://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2012/10/01/ikea-saudi-catalogue-controversy.html WÃ ¤stberg, O.(2009) Branding Sweden & Ikea http://www.placemarketing.nl/countrybranding/branding-sweden-ikea/ Declaration of Academic Integrity Declaration of Academic Integrity Please sign (for hard copy submissions) or put a tick in the box (for online submissions) to indicate that you have read and accepted the following statements. Your assignment will not be accepted without this declaration Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- I confirm that: Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- I have read and understood the UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Shared Values & Honour Code, including the information on practices concerning the academic integrity (given in http://academicintegrity.ntu.edu.sg/a-guide-to-academic-integrity/) and that in the attached coursework submission I have worked within its expectations. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- I am aware that failure to act in accordance with the UniversityÃ¢â¬â¢s Shared Values & Honour Code may lead to the imposition of penalties which may include the requirement to revise and resubmit an assignment, receiving a lower grade, or receiving an F grade for the assignment; suspension from the University or termination of my candidature. Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â- I consent to the University copying and distributing any or all of my work in any form and using third parties to verify whether my work contains plagiarised material, and for quality assurance purposes. Ã¢Ëâ I have read and accept the above. If you require any further guidance about academic integrity, please talk to your profess or refer to http://academicintegrity.ntu.edu.sg Course title: Business Gone Green Course Code: AB0603 Assignment: Ethical Reasoning I, Chia Xinying, declare that the work which I am submitting is original and that I have made proper referencing and citations (where appropriate and required). Chia Xinying 10th March 2013 NameDate Signature AB 0603 Business Gone Green Ethical Reasoning Rubric ISSUE DEFINITION: Describes the Issue of the Situation| Weak| Defines the issue either too narrowly or too broadly with embedded personal biases| Average| Defines the explicit issue appropriately and impartially| Professional| Defines the issue holistically and impartially with logical elaboration| | Weak Average Professional____________________________ 1 2 3| ISSUE CONSTRUCTION : Identifies Alternative Theoretical Perspectives| Weak| Identifies only one theoretical perspective with scant elaboration| Average| Identifies only two theoretical perspectives with some elaboration | Professional| Identifies numerous pertinent theoretical perspectives with good elaboration| | Weak Average Professional____________________________ 1 2 3| ISSUE CONSTRUCTION: Identifies and Elaborates on Uncertainties| Weak| Unable to identify uncertainties inherent in the ethical situation| Average| Identifies only a few uncertainties inherent in the situation with inadequate elaboration| Professional| Incorporates a comprehensive understanding of uncertainties with logical arguments| | Weak Average Professional_____________________________ 1 2 3| EXPLANATION AND JUSTIFICATION: Discusses Effects on Key Stakeholders| Weak| Does not directly describe effects of issue on key stakeholders | Average| Provides little or only superficial discussion of effects of issue on key stakeholders | Professional| Identifies the key stakeholders and addresses their interests and concerns holistically with evidentiary support| | Weak Average Professional_____________________________ 1 2 3| CONCLUSION: Clarifies Values, Synthesis and Trade-offs| Weak| Does not discuss the issue holistically and does not explain how various factors were weighed in arriving at a conclusion| Average| Discuss the issue within a narrow context and provides inadequate evaluation of alternatives and weighing of factors | Professional| Provides a holistic discussion of the issue, reconciles conflicting values/interests, and justifies trade-offs made in reaching a conclusion| | Weak Average Professional_____________________________ 1 2 3| Sources: (a) Wolcott, Susan k., (2005). Colloquium on Change in Accounting Education, October 28, 2005. (b) Sonenshein, Scott. (2007) The role of construction, intuition and justification in responding to ethical issues at work: the sensemaking-intuition model. Academy of Management Review, Vol. 32, No.4, pp. 1022-1040.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Intervention Programs for Learners - Essay Example On the other hand, multisensory learning helps in the improvement of cognitive thinking, creativity, comprehension of words, thinking, decision making, and problem solving (Pagliano, 2012). Multisensory intervention programs consist of oral language skills, decoding sessions, structured reading, story reading and comprehension skills, vocabularies and single word reading, in addition to phase reading (Adlam, 2008). The teachers use stimulation, assessments and challenge in identifying the weaknesses and strengths of their students for the deployment of effective learning strategies. According to research, multisensory intervention programs have proven efficient and effective for both the teachers and the learners, especially with adults with learning disabilities. It consists of an integration of visual, visual and kinesthetic evaluation and assessment systems that facilitate easier memory advancement, and overall learning. The time consumed in the teaching of the basics of learning, that is sounds and letters, depends on the specific requirements of the learned or group of learners (Fisher, Bates & Gurvitz, 2014). This multisensory intervention group will be applied on three students, namely; Adda who is 38 years of age, Shiene who is 22 years of age, and Karen who is 18 years old.The initial stage in multisensory learning involves oral language skills, where the teacher or instructor interacts with the learner using complete sentences. Inquiry learning is also introduced for the identification of challenges and strong points within the student. Though oral language is usually associated with vocabulary.
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Exam questions - Coursework Example Since collective bargaining is a process directly associated with the trade unions, it can be rightly concluded that a fall in trade union membership would reduce the collective number of workers the unions represents, and therefore would lead to a decline in the collective bargaining practice itself. Union membership in the UK was in a consistent decline period from 1979 to 1998, and this can be attributed to a certain set of factors, both direct and underlying reasons. The direct causes of the dramatic decline of union membership are as below (Millward et al., 2000): Unions failed to gain a bargaining presence where it was necessary in the newly established workplaces, as the British manufacturing industry declined, which led to the establishment of new workplaces The union membership in places where they were previously recognized led to people leaving the trade unions as a follow up to other. The decline however is not due to these simple factors only, there are certain underlyin g factors which must be identified and critically analyzed in order to complete the study. Firstly, the macroeconomic conditions of UK underwent a change during the decline era, there was massive unemployment which led to a weakened status of the employees who did not want to lose their jobs by undertaking the risk of contradicting the employers, since the number of layoffs were high, this consciously instigated the workers to leave trade unions, thus leading to decline in membership and collective bargaining. Secondly, the legal and institutional policy framework established by the state government led to an automatic decline, since the policies were anti-union and unfriendly, the unions could not reach agreements since they no longer held a powerful position, thus resulting in declining membership. Thirdly, the policies instated by the management itself focused on meeting individual needs rather than coordinating with the trade unionÃ¢â¬â¢s representative to reach a consensus, t his change in policy abolished the need of having joined any trade unions, thereby reducing the membership number by dramatic numbers. And lastly, according to Metcalf, the aggregate number of union membership is not just a function of environmental factors, but it also accounts for the way in which the trade union responds to the environmental changes, and in UK, the trade unions did not respond diligently, while making the recruitment plan more strenuous, and by ignoring the environmental changes leading to no major changes in the unionÃ¢â¬â¢s agendas, thereby resulting in further decline (Metcalf, 1991, 22). In light of all the reasons stated and explained above, it can be rightly concluded that there were major underlying reasons which led to a decline in union membership which simultaneously caused a decline in the collective bargaining process and practices in the United Kingdom, since they are directly proportional to each other. The decline of one will inevitably result in the decline of other, because collective bargaining is a practice undertaken by trade unions to meet their objectives, and striking agreements
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Arts Complementing Each Other - Essay Example Though sculpture and music are two entirely different areas of art, some times each can be seen as complementing the other. One can easily recognize that Edward MacDowellÃ¢â¬â¢s music complement Ed KienholzÃ¢â¬â¢s sculpture in more ways than one. As Americans, both of them have been naturally influenced by many factors that are unique to American culture. Mac DowellÃ¢â¬â¢s Indian Suite amply illustrates this complementary nature. The composer himself acknowledged the source of his themes for this to be Amerindian Folk songs. However, it was not an imitation or just a restating of Amerindian music exactly. The treatment is quite Mac Dowellian, so to speak, as he maintains a unique identity and character to his work. Potent and vigorous, the theme is unusual, and at times bordering on bizarre. This characteristic is amply echoed in KienholzÃ¢â¬â¢s sculptures like John Doe. The vast, empty spaces of Amerindian country and the exhilarating sense of freedom the musical piece sugge sts has its counterpart in KienholzÃ¢â¬â¢s sculptural form and architectural space.
Monday, August 26, 2019
Campbell Soup - Case Study Example The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s management should have paid attention to the issues affecting their employees. For example, the Campbell Soup Company should have raised the minimum wage of the workers and provide benefits such as health insurance and other benefits that would have made their life secure (Barger & Reza, 1994). Second, the company should have mediated earlier. It is essential to act as soon as the workers concerns become apparent. This is because, as witnessed, the issues may heighten. The living and working conditions of the migrant farm laborers was appalling. A large number of them resided in overpopulated areas, without sufficient toilets, clean drinking water, and electricity. Campbell Soup Company should have improved their living standards so as to prevent criticisms from the Farm Labor Organizing Committee. Third, the company should have researched the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ issues in person. Researching the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ concerns would have assisted in getting accurate inform ation regarding the living and working conditions of the workers and helped management deal with the issues. It was Farm Labor Organizing Committee that highlighted the inequitable labor activities (Barger & Reza, 1994).... They also continued to endure harsh conditions because it was the responsibility of the growers to determine their conditions. Second, Campbell Soup Company employees working conditions enhanced (Barger & Reza, 1994). This is because they were included in labor organizations and could take part in collective bargaining. Third, executives of Campbell Soup Company had to raise wages and enhance their workers working conditions. They also had to change to mechanical harvesters. Fourth, independent growers had to improve the working conditions of laborers due to pressure from FLOC. Fifth, FLOC got support from significant organizations and leading national agencies to advance its activities. Sixth, the ombudsman advanced the accessibility of schooling facilities and guaranteed that the workersÃ¢â¬â¢ children went to school in the school period. Seventh, protesters continued with their protests until the company addressed some of the workerÃ¢â¬â¢s issues (Rosenbaum, 1993). Finally, mi grant workers children stopped accompanying their parents to the farms and started attending classes in the school period. Question 3 The most appropriate ethical approach applicable to this situation is the utilitarian approach. The utilitarian approach examines an act in terms of its outcomes or consequences, that is, the total costs and benefits to every stakeholder on a personal level. The utilitarian approach attempts to attain the largest benefit for the largest number of people while generating the least degree of damage or thwarting the largest degree of distress (Barger & Reza, 1994). The approach asserts that everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s concern should be looked at in a similar manner during the decision making process, and this incorporates
Sunday, August 25, 2019
New World Resource - Assignment Example e net present value therefore is NPV= -1,000,000+( 8000/1.10 +200000/1.12 + 800,000/1.13+820000/1.14+ 970,000/1.15) = 704045.20 Internal rate of return Year () Cash flow () 0 -1000000 1 8000 2 200000 3 800000 4 820000 5 970000 Then the IRRÃ Ã is NPV= -1,000,000+( 8000/(1.1+r) +200000/(1.1+r)2 + 800,000/(1.1+r)3+820000/(1.1+r)4+ 970,000/(1.1+r)5) r = 15.20% Project 2: Code name: Zeta Net profit -3,000,000 1,400,000 1,000,000 1,000,000 800,000 600,000 Net profit Net profit = total revenue- initial investment. ... = 4800000 /3000000 = 1.6 Net present value YearÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Cash FlowÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Present Value Ã 0Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -1,000,000Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -$1,000,000 Ã 1Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1400000Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã $181,818.18 Ã 2Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1000,000Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã $247,933.88Ã Ã 3Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 1000,000Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã $150,262.96 4 800,000 5 600,000 Net Present Value = $80,015.02 The net present value therefore is NPV= -3,000,000+( 1400000/1.10 +1000000/1.12 + 1000,000/1.13+800000 /1.14+ 600,000/1.15) NPV= 927093.80 Internal rate of return Then the IRRÃ Ã is NPV= -3,000,000+( 1400000/(1.1+r) +1000000/(1.1+r)2 + 1000,000/(1.1+r)3+800000/(1.1+r)4+ 600,000/(1.1+r)5) = 15.25 % Project 3: Code name: Lambda -1,200,000 0 400,000 900,000 1,000,000 700,000 Net profit Net profit = total revenue- initial investment. Net profit=3000000-1200000 = 1800000 Payback period Payback Period = Initial Investment Cash Inflow per Period Since the cash flow is uneven, Then Payback Period = A +(B/C) Cash Flows Cumulative Cash Flow Year Cash Flow 0 (1200000) (1200000) 1 0 (1200000) 2 400000 (800000) 3 900000 100000 4 1000000 1100000 5 700000 1800000 Payback Period = 2 + (|800000| ? 900000) ? 2 + 0.88 ? 2.88 years Return on investment Return on investment = totol amount gained/totol amount invested. = 3000000/1200000 = 2.5 Net present value YearÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Cash FlowÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Present Value Ã 0Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -1,200,000Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -$1,200,000 Ã 1Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã 0 Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã -1200000
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Biochem unit 9 paper - Essay Example Vitamin E works with other molecules such as glutathione, selenium, vitamin C, and vitamin B3 in preventing oxygen from becoming too reactive, thereby preventing oxidative stress (WHFoods: vitamin E, n.d.). Numerous studies indicate that oxidation is the crucial phase in atherogenesis. Oxidized low-density lipoproteins with low density promote the production of inflammatory indicators. They are also implicated in the formation of foam cells, inhibition of vasodilation due to nitric oxide, and inhibition of the motility of tissue macrophages (Saremi & Arora, 2010). Experiments carried out on mouse models reveal that vitamin E plays a significant role in augmenting oxidative resistance in vitro, consequently avoiding the formation of atherosclerotic plaque. In humans, there is reduced risk of coronary heart diseases due to consumption of vitamin E-rich foods especially in middle-aged and older men and women (Saremi & Arora, 2010). However, results from some clinical trials provide conflicting data. According to Blumberg, vitamin E has been implicated as having an unfavourable effect in the therapy of heart disease (n.d.). He further attributes these disparities to the different primary and secondary tests. Primary prevention entails observing large numbers of healthy people and investigating the incidence of new heart disease in the midst of people with diverse intakes of vitamin E. On the contrary, secondary prevention takes place Ã¢â¬Å"over a few years in clinical trials with vitamin E supplements (and placebos) in patients with heart disease to determine whether their conditions worsen, e.g., with a subsequent heart attackÃ¢â¬ (Blumberg, n.d.). Therefore, vitamin E is more effective in primary prevention by preventing the development of plaque, which usually starts in childhood and continues in adulthood. Nonetheless, a number of studies indicate that vitamin E could
Beethoven- family - Essay Example This placed a lot of pressure on Beethoven at the young age of 17 because he took it upon himself to look after his two younger brothers. Because there was little family income, Beethoven began playing viola in the court orchestra; this provided him with enough to take care of himself, his alcoholic father, and his two younger brothers. A few months after Beethoven left the family home to once again pursue his music career, he learned of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s death. Later on in his life, BeethovenÃ¢â¬â¢s younger brother, Carl, died from tuberculosis. Beethoven had contributed a great deal while Carl was ill. After his brother died, Beethoven attempted to gain custody of his nephew (CarlÃ¢â¬â¢s son), Karl, but CarlÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Johanna, refused to allow Beethoven to do so. A long and bitter legal dispute followed, with Beethoven eventually granted sole custody. Beethoven was very controlling of KarlÃ¢â¬â¢s activities. Perhaps as a result of this treatment, Karl attempted suicide but did not succeed. After this, Karl recuperated under the care of his mother, and Beethoven had little contact with Karl until his death in March of
Friday, August 23, 2019
International business environment - Case Study Example These changes in the external economic environment meant that McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had to adapt to the local conditions where shortages were the order of the day, prices were controlled by the government, and inefficiency was the hallmark of the economic system and finally, challenges in procurement of raw materials for its products. Since Russia went through the stages described above, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had to reorient its strategy to meet the challenges posed by these changes in the external environment which impacted the operations of its stores in Russia. Further, with price control and rationing of raw materials, McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s had to cope with uncertainty in procurement which pushes up costs but the end user price remains the same for its finished products. Finally, working with government officials presented challenges of its own which meant that the way in which managers at McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s dealt with government officials impacted its operations as well. These are some aspec ts of the external economic environment which impacted the operations of McDonaldÃ¢â¬â¢s in
Thursday, August 22, 2019
The power of psychological time in poetry Essay Poetry is always connected to various time representations. Poets replace real time with different psychological visions and ideas of past or future events. We frequently find ourselves in a situation, when we cannot completely understand the time implications of a specific poem. Thomas Hardy and T. S. Eliot were well known for their poetic skills in representing various dimensions of time. In their works, time has become a symbol, and their Ã¢â¬Å"instinctive mode as writers was figurative, not analytic; their most habitual method was symbolism, not argument. Ã¢â¬ In HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Wessex HeightsÃ¢â¬ , and EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Rhapsody on a Windy NightÃ¢â¬ , time acquires new meaning. It is no longer the clock measurement of our actions; it is a psychological dimension which creates the virtual space in which we live. Our memories signify the power of psychological time; in their poems, Eliot and Hardy underline the significance and power of psychological time and oppose it to the clock or seasonal time, under the impact of which we traditionally live. Ã¢â¬Å"Wessex HeightsÃ¢â¬ and HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s meaning of psychological time HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Wessex HeightsÃ¢â¬ is invariably linked to the way Hardy interprets the meaning of philosophical and psychological notions of time and space. Evidently, temporal subject is central to Ã¢â¬Å"Wessex HeightsÃ¢â¬ , and the poet creates a conjunction of numerous elements, which ultimately form what we call Ã¢â¬Å"psychological timeÃ¢â¬ . There are some heights in Wessex, shaped as if by a kindly hand For thinking, dreaming, dying on, and at crises when I stand, Say, on Ingpen Beacon eastward, or on Wylls-Neck westwardly, I seem where I was before my birth, and after death may be. (Hardy 1989, 23). This trope becomes the beginning of a readerÃ¢â¬â¢s journey to HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s representation of psychological time and the continuity of human emotions. It is not surprising that the poet uses the exact geographical names, and seems to determine the exact geographical location for the reader. This Ã¢â¬Å"geographicalÃ¢â¬ character of the poem is initially deceptive. Moreover, Hardy uses these names to oppose the reality to psychology of time, and geography serves the instrument of such opposition. Ã¢â¬Å"It is not surprising that Ã¢â¬Å"Wessex HeightsÃ¢â¬ uses the title of a specific locality only to emphasise dislocation, moving the speaker in and out of abstracted spaces that have, as it turns out, little connection to physical place. Ã¢â¬ The first stanza actually becomes the start of the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s journey into the depth of HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s psychological time. The dislocation, about which Richards writes, is one of the most prominent characteristics to emphasise the power of psychological time, which makes memories and feelings eternal. The first stanza smoothly moves the reader into the clearer representations of the psychological time. It seems that the poet was preparing us to what we would later see after we move to virtual lowlands: Ã¢â¬Å"Down there I seem to be false to myself, my simple self that was, / And is not now, and I see him watching, wondering what crass cause / Can have merged him into such a strange continuator s thisÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The reader seems to appear in the center of an action, where the past plays with the present, and where one sees oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self as a separate being. Hardy evidently opposes reality of time to its psychology, underlining the effects which psychological time may cause on a person. In order to strengthen the effect, Hardy presents the second stanza in a more structured metrical form than the first one. As a result, Ã¢â¬Å"the past self, the chrysalis, encloses the present subject in the same paradoxical way that rhyme enfolds HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s chaotic language, so that these structures play against other as the poem progresses. Ã¢â¬ Hardy uses the notion of locality, and exact geographical names to emphasise the mixture of the geographical and the aesthetical. In his work, geography loses its meaning when the poet speaks about ghosts in the third stanza: Ã¢â¬Å"There is a ghost at YellÃ¢â¬â¢ham Bottom chiding loud at the fall of the night. Ã¢â¬ The ghosts represent the circulation of the psychological time. In distinction from the real clock or seasonal time, in psychological time a person has an opportunity to return to the past memories. In this aspect psychological time is evidently stronger than the real one. As the reader retreats from these ghosts in the first stanza, he meets them again in the third passage; Ã¢â¬Å"the conventional ghosts of the lowlands repeat their presence in a form that revises their past forms. This repetition constitutes human temporality in a particular way: time is movement toward a future which will be, but never yet is, the perfected assumption of the past. Ã¢â¬ The psychological time, in which the reader appears when reading Ã¢â¬Å"Wessex HeightsÃ¢â¬ creates favourable conditions for separating the self and analyzing it through the prism of the past events. In HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s vision, this separation and the absence of a psychological line between the past and the present creates an incredible emotional atmosphere, in which any person can find a key to oneself. Ã¢â¬Å"Rhapsody on a Windy NightÃ¢â¬ : Eliot and Bergson The first impression from reading EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Rhapsody on a Windy NightÃ¢â¬ is in that the poet creates a kind of Ã¢â¬Å"coherent imaginative vision of time. Ã¢â¬ Eliot has brilliantly incorporated BergsonÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of time into his poetic work . As with HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Wessex HeightsÃ¢â¬ , Eliot underlines the impossibility to measure time in traditional clock or seasonal terms. The poet clearly keeps to the idea of time being more psychological than seasonal. As a result, the reader acquires additional opportunities to return to the past, and to analyze the future actions through the prism of the past events. The major difference between Ã¢â¬Å"Wessex HeightsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Rhapsody on a Windy NightÃ¢â¬ is in that Hardy creates a vision of unlimited time through the use of geographical names and localities. In his turn, Eliot emphasises the opposition between the clock time and psychological time. His poem takes the reader away from traditional clock measurements which do not give any space for the analysis of the self and the continuity of time: Twelve oÃ¢â¬â¢clock. Along the reaches of the street Held in a lunar synthesis, Whispering lunar incantations Dissolve the floors of memory And all its clear relations Its divisions and precisions, Every street lamp that I pass Beats like a fatalistic drumÃ¢â¬ ¦ (Eliot 1991, 16) Eliot starts each stanza in a similar way: the passing of the clock time symbolises its irrelevance and insignificance towards the relations, divisions, and precisions of the psychological time. It is not a secret, that EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s creative work was dramatically influenced by the works of Henri Bergson in terms of time concept. In his works, Bergson distinguished the two different types of time: real and mathematical. In BergsonÃ¢â¬â¢s view, real time was indivisible and continuous, while mathematical time could be measured. In EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s poem, the reader faces the challenge of distinguishing real time from mathematical time measurements. Real time in EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s view stands in the form of indivisible psychological continuum, which is broken by mathematical measurements in the form of clock time at certain regular intervals. There is a persistent impression that EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"RhapsodyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ continues the logical time line of HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Wessex HeightsÃ¢â¬ by mixing past with present, and recognising the insignificance of Ã¢â¬Å"mathematicalÃ¢â¬ measurable time: Ã¢â¬Å"The past exists in the present, which contains the future. The concrete and ever present instance of duration is life, for each of us living in his own time. Ã¢â¬ Eliot speaks about memories, which do not change with time. He speaks of time as psychological notion, which cannot be measured. Ã¢â¬Å"Half-past three. / The lamp sputtered, / The lamp muttered in the dark. / The lamp hummed: / Ã¢â¬Å"Regard the moonÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ The moon, and not the clock is the sign of the reality of time, but even the moon can lose memory: Ã¢â¬Å"The moon has lost her memory. Ã¢â¬ Through the whole poem, Eliot seems to seek the means of time measurability: he tries to use lamps, moon, and clock to divide his time into separate passages. Yet, these measures only confirm the continuity of psychological time, and the continuity of memories which actually constitute this psychological time. In his Ã¢â¬Å"RhapsodyÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ , Eliot Ã¢â¬Å"adds the influence of time and its inescapable nature. Memory and the past bring into focus relationships and lack of personal fulfillment. Ã¢â¬ As psychological time cannot be measured, it serves a measure in itself: the measure of EliotÃ¢â¬â¢s passion, emotiveness, and the memory which is the key to eternity. Conclusion Poetry is inherently separated from any traditional measurements of time. In their works, Hardy and Eliot were trying to create a border between the clock (seasonal) and psychological time. Both were striving to mix past with future, and to show the futility of traditional time measurements against the power of memories and psychological time. Both have incorporated either geographical names or traditional measures of time to emphasise their irrelevance towards peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s emotions. Bergson says that Ã¢â¬Å"reality has extension as well as duration. However, space is not a void or vacuum which is filled by reality. Things are not in space, space is in things. Ã¢â¬ As a result, psychological time is not an objective reality: it is extremely subjective and stems from the personal memories and interpretations. Subjective notions cannot be measured, and both poets were trying to deliver this essence to the reader. Ultimately, after reading the two poems, the reader finds oneself in a new environment, which breaks traditional limits of time and produces a completely new vision of the self. BIBLIOGRAPHY Bergson, H. The Creative Mind: An Introduction to Metaphysics. New York: Kensington Publishing Group, 1946. Eliot, T. S. Ã¢â¬Å"Rhapsody on a Windy Night. Ã¢â¬ In Collected Poems, 1909-1962, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1991, p. 16. Hardy, Thomas. Ã¢â¬Å"Wessex Heights. Ã¢â¬ In Thomas Hardy: Wessex Heights, ed. N. Philip, London: Bloomsbury Pub Ltd, 1989. , p. 23. Maxwell, D. E. S. The Poetry of T. S. Eliot. Routledge Kegan, 1960. Richards, J. Ã¢â¬Å"The History of Error: HardyÃ¢â¬â¢s Critics and the Self Unseen. Ã¢â¬ Victorian Poetry 45 (2007): 24-29. Siebenschuh, William R. Ã¢â¬Å"Hardy and the Imagery of Place. Ã¢â¬ Studies in English Literature 39 (1999): 101-103. Thomson, E. T. S. Eliot: The Metaphysical Perspective. Southern Illinois University Press, 1963.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Clone Detection in Object Oriented Systems Program Slicing based Clone Detection in Object Oriented Systems Ishu Singla Rajesh Bhatia AbstractÃ¢â¬â Program slicing is an efficient technique for understanding programs by simplifying them. It is a program analysis technique that extracts a particular set of statements relevant to any computation. For the last 25 years, the technique has found its application in a number of research areas like testing, debugging, maintenance etc. In this paper, we have proposed a method to use this technique for clone detection in object oriented programs. As program slicing concentrates only on the relevant portion of the programs based upon some criteria, this property can be utilized in clone detection process. For this we have used Program Dependency Graphs as an intermediate representation. These PDGÃ¢â¬â¢s are later used to extract isomorphic partial slices and finally these slices are matched to find out potential clones. KeywordsÃ¢â¬â Partial Slices;PDG; Isomorphism. I. Introduction A code clone represents a sequence of statements that are duplicated in multiple locations of a program. Clones often arise in source code as a result of multiple cut paste operations on the source. Thus, Code cloning can be considered as the act of copying code fragments and making minor, non-functional alterations in the implemented code. Code cloning increases the maintenance cost because if there is an error in the code fragment to be copied, then that error will be propagated at different places. Thus, the normal functioning of the system is not affected but further development may become prohibitively expensive . Pre-processing of the whole program is often not a good choice while searching for clones. The program contains a number of irrelevant statements, thus, pre-processing will be a time consuming process . Also the approach for finding clones in procedural oriented and object oriented programs is completely different. Clone detection in object oriented programs has a number of problems  and sometimes follows different approach. Selecting a particular set of statements from a large program that contains statements relevant to a particular computation is called program slicing. Thus, Program Slicing improves program understandability and find its importance in a number of applications such as software maintenance, software debugging, testing etc . A number of code clone detection techniques have been proposed based on text, token, graphs, trees and metrics . Some other techniques based on models and some hybrid techniques have also been proposed . The main advantage of using program slicing is that we can find the non-contiguous, intertwined code clones, where the coder changes some of the statements and the rest of the code remains unchanged in between. II. DEFINITIONS Program slicing was originally introduced by Weiser that defines program slicing as an analysis technique which extracts the elements of a program related to a particular computation. That set of statements collectively called as program slice. Program slices contains that parts of a program that affects the values computed at some point of interest. Program slicing automatically decomposes program by determining the data and control dependencies . A. SLICING CRITERION Slicing in program is always computed on the basis of some slicing criterion. We can represent slicing criterion as , where S is the statement from which the slice is to be computed and V is the variable for which the slice is to be computed and that variable must exist in the statement S . B. DATA DEPENDENCY Statement P is data dependent on statement Q of a program if there exists a variable m at P which is accessed also in statement Q . Consider the following example, 1.x=10; 2.y=x+c; In statement 1, we are assigning a value 10 to x and in statement 2, we are using the value of x. So, there is a data dependency between the two statements 1 and 2. C. CONTROL DEPENDENCY Statement P is control dependent on statement Q if and only if statement P controls the execution of statement Q . Consider the following example, 1.if(statement 1) 2. statement 2; In the above example, statement 2 will be executed if statement 1 results in true value. Thus, statement 2 is control dependent on statement 1. Figure. 1 flow chart for program slicing based clone detection. III. Clone Detection Using the Program Slicing in object oriented programs Figure 1 shows the flow chart for the clone detection approach. The technique starts by taking two sample java programs. Then, the pre-processing of these programs is to be done, in which we remove the comments and blank spaces. Thereafter, the .class files for the normalized sample programs are generated. After this, the Program Dependency Graphs (PDGs), on the basis of control and data dependencies, are determined for the two programs. The program dependency graph is represented in the form of adjacency matrix as shown in figure 2. It is an n*n matrix where n is the no of statements in the normalized program. Every entry Ã¢â¬Ë1Ã¢â¬â¢ represents the data dependency between the two statements determined from the row and column of the matrix. Similarly, every entry 2 represents the control dependency between two statements. Now, by having a close look at the adjacency matrix, it is quite clear that the matrix is sparse because the occurrence of zero is higher than the non-zero entries. So comparing the adjacency matrices of the two programs canÃ¢â¬â¢t be an efficient approach. Thus, an algorithm has been developed that determines the partial slices from the adjacency matrix in the form of lists. In earlier techniques for program slicing, the slicing criterion has to be defined manually to determine the slices. But, in our approach, the program slices are determined automatically on the basis of the mentioned algorithm. Because, the slices are extracted starting from the first statement, using control and data dependencies in the adjacency matrix. Figure 2. Example of Adjacency matrix obtained from programs. A. Algorithm for Program Slicing Input:- A control data dependency adjacency matrix mat[n][n] of size n*n where n is the no of statements. Every entry Ã¢â¬Ë1Ã¢â¬â¢ at index mat[i][j] shows that there is a data dependency between statement i and j and every entry Ã¢â¬Ë2Ã¢â¬â¢ represents the control dependency between statement i and j. Output:- Partial slices in form of lists The partial slices are extracted from the adjacency matrix, which are in the form of lists. Once, the partial slices for the two java programs are determined, we have to match them using an efficient matching algorithm. If there is cloning among the two source codes, then there must be a match between these partial slices. The matching algorithm will find out the extent of cloning between the two programs by comparing the partial slices and finally return percentage of cloning as result. IV. Related Work In last two decades, various algorithms have been proposed for program slicing. All have its own advantages and shortcomings. In next section, an overview of recent research in the area of program slicing is given. Z. Guangquan et. al proposed a method to slice the concurrent object oriented programs. In this approach the java concurrency model is used and dependencies between the statements are defined. The paper presents the method of extracting slicing criterion from linear temporal logic property and proposes the steps of computing slicing. Multithreaded dependency graph is used for intermediate representation. A Two-pass algorithm based on Variable Cache Table is adapted to compute slices by extracting out the irrelevant portions of the programs. Results show the satisfaction is guaranteed for source and sliced program and the method can be easily extended to handle other concurrency models. R. Komondoor et. al. proposed a tool to detect clones in C fragments. In their approach, they used program dependence graphs and program slicing to find isomorphic PDG subgraphs. These subgraphs can be represented as clones. This tool is capable of finding non-continuous clones, intertwined clones and clones in which different variable names are used and statements have been reordered. The approach has been applied for the procedural oriented programs and finds many variants of ideal clones. A number of test cases demonstrating the application of approach on large programs have been shown . A. Surendran et. al. proposed a partial slicing approach as an effective method of program testing. Partial slices are formed from the combination of static slices and program points. In some cases static slices contains large number of program statements which are of little use in many practical applications. Partial slicing removes the disadvantage of large size of static slices. In their approach they use only static slices for the algorithm as static slices give all possible execution paths. As compared to original program there is a significant reduction in the number of statements in static slices using partial slicing. Using the constraints of partial slicing program testing is also simplified. This approach can also be used in debugging, maintenance and finding clones . D. Liang et. al. presented system dependence graph for object-oriented softwareÃ¢â¬â¢s. They have shown that their approach is more precise than previous approaches and is more efficient to construct. It distinguishes data members that fit for different objects. It provides a way to represent data members that act as parameters and the effects of polymorphism on parameters and parameter bindings. It presents a concept of object slicing which helps in examine the statements in slice object by object. Object slicing is good technique for debugging and analysis of large scale programs. In their work an efficient mechanism is also provided to represent incomplete programs and to represent classes in class libraries . T. Ishio et. al. proposed a program debugging tool. In their approach they proposed dynamic slicing to efficiently localize faults in procedural oriented and object oriented programs. Aspect-oriented programming is used for collecting dynamic information in program slicing calculation. The dynamic data dependence analysis aspect can be woven into various object-oriented programs without changes as the point cuts of the aspect in the approach is made in a generic form. With the help of dynamic program analysis module, a DC slice calculation system is developed. It improves maintainability and reusability of the module. The approach has also a restriction that it does not allow to analyze the local variables and local control structures. The benefits, usability and cost effectiveness of module show that it is a good tool for debugging . B. Korel et. al. presents the concept of program slicing on the module level which helps in better understanding of program slices of large programs. In this paper on call graph level, execution level and module trace level several static and dynamic program slicing features are proposed. These features can also be used during software maintenance. The concept of static and dynamic program slicing is combined with different methods of visualization which helps in understanding the program. Experiment results show that it helps the process of understanding program . V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK This paper provides a technique for detecting code clones in object oriented programs. For this purpose, program slicing is used as the base methodology. The algorithm uses PDGs as the intermediate representations for the source program. The PDG is represented in the form of adjacency matrix. Partial slices are extracted from the adjacency matrix and those slices are matched for possible clones. Result shows that program slicing is an efficient way for understanding programs and finding non-contiguous clones and intertwined code clones. The approach uses the control and data dependencies to find out adjacency matrix representation for the PDG. The whole process is automated where the user has to interact only once to input the programs for finding clones. Future work involves taking into consideration all the object oriented paradigm. It includes the object oriented programming features such as abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism. An efficient algorithm for matching partial slices is also to be developed. REFERENCES  Dhavleesh Rattan, Rajesh Bhatia, Maninder Singh, Ã¢â¬Å"Software clone detection: a systematic review,Ã¢â¬ Information and software technology, Vol. 55, No. 7, pp. 1165-1199, 2013.  C. K. Roy, J.R. Cordy and R. Koschke, Ã¢â¬Å"Comparison and evaluation of code clone detection techniques and tools: A qualitative approach,Ã¢â¬ Science of computer programming, Vol. 74, No. 7, pp. 470-495, 2009.  F. Tip, Ã¢â¬Å"A Survey of Program Slicing TechniquesÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Programming Languages, 1995, vol. 3, no. 3,pp. 121-189.  R. Komondoor,S. Horwitz, Using Slicing to Identify Duplication in Source Code, Proceedings of the 8th International Symposium on Static Analysis, 2001.  Yingzhou Zhang, Baowen Xu, Jose Emilio, Labra Gayo, A Formal Method for Program Slicing, Proceedings of the 2005 Australian Software Engineering Conference (ASWECÃ¢â¬â¢05) 1530-0803/05.  Jens Krinke, Advanced Slicing of Sequential and Concurrent Programs, Proceedings of the 20th IEEE International Conference on Software Mai1ntenance (ICSMÃ¢â¬â¢04) 1063-6773/04,2004.  Z. Guangquan, R. Mei, An Approach of Concurrent Object-oriented Program Slicing Base on LTL Property, 2008 IEEE International Conference on Computer Science and Software Engineering,DOI 10.1109/CSSE.2008.1283.  M. Weiser, Program slicing, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 10(4):352Ã¢â¬â357, 1984.  Dhavleesh Rattan, Rajesh Bhatia, Maninder Singh, Ã¢â¬Å"Model clone detection based on tree comparison,Ã¢â¬ India conference (INDICON), IEEE, pp. 1041 Ã¢â¬â 1046, 2012  A. Surendran, P. Samuel, Partial Slices in Program Testing,2012 IEEE 35th Software Engineering Workshop.  Yogita Sharma, Rajesh Bhatia, Raj Kumar Tekchandani, Ã¢â¬Å"Hybrid technique for object oriented software clone detection,Ã¢â¬ ME thesis submitted at Thapar University, Patiala, 2011  D. Liang, M. Harrold, Slicing Objects Using System Dependence Graph, IEEE International Conference on Software Maintenance,Washington, D.C., November 1998.  T. Ishio, S. Kusumoto,K. Inoue, Program Slicing Tool for Effective Software Evolution Using Aspect-Oriented Technique, Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Principles of Software Evolution, 2002 IEEE.  B. Korel, J. Rilling, Program Slicing in Understanding of Large Programs, Program Comprehension, 1998. IWPC 98. Proceedings., 6th International Workshop.  S. Khalsa, R. Bhatia,J. Chhabra, M. Singh, A Review of Coupling and Cohesion Measurement in OO Systems Using Program Slicing, ICISTM 2012, CCIS 285, pp.199-210,Springer, 2012.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Supply and Demand of Labor in the US Melanie Canady I choose to do my research paper on the supply and demand of labor in the United States. I will attempt to illustrate the change in supply and demand in the labor market over the last 10 years. I will also explore the different effects and share many views on how this has played a significate role on the economy in the United States. Supply and Demand is categorized as the forces that make the economy work. The supply of labor is defined as the number of workers who are willing and able to work. The labor demand is the number of employers who are willing and able to hire those workers. Supply and demand of labor differs based on the jobs or occupations that are available. Over the last 10 years the supply and demand of labor in the United States has dropped significantly, while other countries has increased, this is because US based companies are moving jobs or operation overseas, because of different types of incentives that they are taking advantage of in order to make their busine ss more profitable. Since 2000 the labor market has been declining, therefore causing increasing poverty in the United States. This is because of our weak and unequal labor market which began before the great recession. This rising inequality is because of the declining average earnings and the number of workers with the below average wages have grown over the years. There have been many groups affected by this inequality, but one group that has the greatest impact is less educated men. We have seen that this group has experienced a decline in their earnings in the past decade. Because of this it has reduced the income in their families and therefore caused much higher poverty numbers. Why has this happened? First of all todayÃ¢â¬â¢s labor market puts a greater premium on workers education levels and skills than it did a generation ago (Holzer). With the growing technology advancements in our economy it has reduced the demand for the less skilled workers especially in production workers in the factori es. The supply of well educated workers has not kept up with the growing demand. There has been a gap in the percentage of young people earning some kind of college education. Many years back when factory work in the United States was in high demand, there was jobs available and they paid a decent salary. Obtaining a college education was the last thing that was thought of. As companies moved away to other countries, we all experienced a decline in earnings because we had to accept jobs that was available, and without some kind of college education the jobs were a few to none. We can see that the well-paying production and clerical jobs are going away, therefore making the way for jobs requiring some technical training or work experience. In order to improve the labor market we need to improve our education and work-force system and to develop a skilled workforce. This will help to eliminate the high levels of poverty and inequality in the United States. The United States must continuously improve the workforce to be able to compete with other nations. We need to develop a strong workforce and employers need to be able to offer a good pay scale. The demand of labor had decreased in the United States because business value short term profits over making the workforce more efficient. The federal government must address the unemployment and underemployment that we have facing in the United States and to realize that the United States is stuck in the worse economic and social crisis since the Great Depression. It is clear that the labor market had failed to generate enough jobs to support the growth. The demand of labor is just like any like any other goods or service, it can be classified as both supply and demand. Labor is considered to be elastic if the wage increase causes a decline in the rate of employment and it is inelastic if the employers do not decrease employment to respond to the wage increase. If the supply of labor becomes more limited, especially with highly skilled workers, the cost of employing these workers rises. The labor in these skilled jobs may become less elastic, because these jobs cannot be easily filled. The demand of labor is declining in the United States because employers are becoming more focused on profits than investing in the workers. The labor market failure is a result of our government not asking the United States corporations or their leader to help build the productivity in American instead they are providing benefits for them move to other countries or off shore. For a business in the United States it make economic sense for them to close a plant or a business and send jobs offshore where they will perform more efficiently and at a lower cost. They will not invest in the workers in the United States to make them more efficient in supplying the up to date equipment or providing training that will lead to accomplish the goal of the business. America has a two dimensional job crisis: a persistent deficit in the number of jobs that are being created and an insufficient percentage of high quality job. (Kochan) One of the job crisis that the United States economy faced was that they needed 7 million jobs to get back to the levels that was reported before the great depression and another 5 million to account for the growth in the same time period. The PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s Council on Jobs and Competitiveness estimates that there will be a need for 20 million jobs by the year 2020. With these number the United States economy has never created jobs at this rate, therefore setting America up for a serious job deficit for the rest of this decade. The second job crisis that was evidential was that employment benefits represented a key to job quality. Going back to at least World War II, the United States workforce relied on the business to providing health care and retirement benefits. Since the 1980Ã¢â¬â¢s this benefit had been shrinking. Employer-provided benefits has been proven to be a play big factor in the workforce in the United States for decades. This benefits gives an employee job satisfaction. In lieu of the employer provided benefits such as health care, pension plans and 401k plans declining, the workers are reporting that they are not satisfied with their jobs anymore. Being provided these benefits has proven to be a piece that has given workers the motivation to perform their jobs at the highest level. That is being proficient and efficient that exceed the level that the business is asking for to be able to achieve the goals of the company. To be able to create 20 million high quality jobs in the United States by year 2020 we must pull together business, labor and government representatives to develop a plan of action. This group needs to determine which issues should be tackled first and what resources will be required. First they should determine what to do to jump start job growth, with this determination it will prevent the jobs and economic crisis from worsening. Another discussion that would be of interest would be to find a way to recapture the lost manufacturing. Some manufacturing jobs could be recaptured if businesses would take into account the total cost of producing goods offshore and shipping back to the United States. The HBS summit should make a proposal on what should be done to bring home millions of jobs over the next several years. Many business that moved jobs offshore came under attack by many because it seem to be a slap in the face for many that lost their jobs to other countries. This caused the government to establish programs that helped the American people to overcome some of the obstacles that they faced with losing their jobs. The Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) is the primary Federal program that supports workforce development (Congressional Digest). This program provides education and training services for people that has lost their jobs because of layoffs or the closing of a business. This program also will help prepare a person for the next chapter in their lives by allowing them improve their skills and prepare them for skilled jobs by providing them with secondary and postsecondary education, on the job and employer-provided training. It also will provide funding for on the job training and employment services. This means that they will pay for the persons training to a company that will potentially hire them for a position. The Federal government provides workforce development activities through WIAÃ¢â¬â¢s programs and other programs designed to increase the employment and earning of workers (Congressional Digest). The programs that are offered are job search assistance, career counseling, occupational skill training, classroom training or on-the-job training (Congressional Digest). The WIA programs are funded through the state and federal and it administer by the U.S. Department of Labor and is available to unemployed or under employed individuals. In 2012 the programs funds was $4.9 billion dollars, this included $2.6 billion for state grants that was obtained for young, adult and dislocated worker training. WIA Title 1 programs provide employment and training services and also a One-Stop system. This system is required by each state and includes a core service and access to an intensive training service, provide programs and activities that are carried out by a One-Stop partner, and provide access to all labor market information, job search, placement, recruitment and labor exchange services that are authorized under the Wagner-Peyser Act. Each state is required to have a One-Stop center that is accessible either remotely or electronically. In order to fill the gap, businesses needs to find a way to attract and help develop a skilled workforce for todayÃ¢â¬â¢s labor market. Although there are programs in place to assist and help to develop these skills, businesses should also help. If businesses would get involved it will show that they are committed to helping with the job shortage and skills development. Although community colleges offer vocational programs to fill specific jobs, if the businesses would work with the college to develop programs that is specific to their business it would help them obtain a better workforce. This year there will be about $450 million in grants available to help promote and develop a skilled workforce this year. We are in an economy that simply needs to create and get more jobs. The lack of job growth is killing the United States. We are encouraging the young people to go to college and to get their education, but they are graduating and not able to find work. This is because there is a no jobs to offer them after graduation. The United States government should stop and take a look at what is in the United States instead of looking abroad. There is a Work Cited Kochan, Thomas A. A Jobs Compact For Americas Future. Harvard Business Review 90.3 (2012): 64-72. Business Source Complete. Web. 1 Nov. 2014 Workforce Investment Act Overview. Congressional Digest 93.3 (2014): 2. MAS Complete. Web. 1 Nov. 2014. HOLZER, HARRY J. Upgrading Skills, Upgrading Opportunity. American Prospect 23.6 (2012): 26. Points of View Reference Center. Web. 1 Nov. 2014 HIGGS, ROBERT. Worrisome Changes In U.S. Labor Force And Employment Since 2007. Independent Review 18.3 (2014): 471. MasterFILE Complete. Web. 1 Nov. 2014 Bridging The Skills Gap. Smart Business Pittsburgh 21.4 (2014): 20. Business Source Complete. Web. 2 Nov. 2014. Mankiw, Gregory. Ã¢â¬Å"Principals of MicroeconomicsÃ¢â¬ How Market Works Seventh Edition Chapter 4
Monday, August 19, 2019
How to Assemble an Easter Basket Video Title page: How to Assemble an Easter Basket 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Front, WS: Instructor gives an introduction. 2.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Front, CU: Basket in shot by itself. 3.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Front, MS: Instructor holds up basket and speaks. 4.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Side, MS: Instructor speaks about first step. 5.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Side, CU: InstructorÃ¢â¬â¢s hands put pink Easter grass into Easter basket. 6.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Front, CU: Easter basket is shown with pink Easter grass inside it. 7.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Front, MS: Instructor speaks about the main ingredients of the Easter basket, candy and Easter eggs that sit on table. 8.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Front, CU: Instructor points to the candy and Easter eggs, with one open and shows how to stuff the egg with candy. 9.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Front, CU: Instructor places candy and eggs into basket. 10.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Front, CU: Easter basket is shown with candy and eggs inside it. 11.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Diagonal, MS: Instructor holds up the last item to go into the Easter basket, the little bunny. 12.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Diagonal, CU: Instructor places little bunny inside basket. 13.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Top, CU: Shot of pink grass. 14.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Top, CU: Shot of candy and Easter eggs. 15.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Top, CU: Shot of little bunny. 16.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Front, WS: Instructor closes while holding the Easter basket towards the camera. Fade to Black Audio Theme music up full and out. 1.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Hi, my name is --------, and today IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to show you how to assemble a basic Easter basket. 2.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã First, you must pick just the right basket. 3.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã This one looks good to me. 4.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The first step in assembling the Easter basket is pink Easter grass. 5.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Place the pink grass into the basket, and make sure to fluff it. 6.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã HereÃ¢â¬â¢s what your basket should look like after the pink grass. 7.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Next, the Easter basket needs candy and Easter eggs. 8.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã You can find plastic Easter eggs at your local Wal-Mart, and you want to open the egg, place the candy inside, and close it back together. These two eggs already have candy. 9.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Put the candy and Easter eggs into the basket. 10.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Make sure and spread out the candy and eggs so it looks even and nice.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
I have both negative and positive things to say about William FaulknerÃ¢â¬â¢s novel As I Lay Dying. In the book Faulkner uses a very unique approach for narration. He has very strong sentences and vocabulary, but the story itself was too strange and warped for my enjoyment. Nevertheless there is a vibe given off in this Faulkner Novel that make it a timeless classic. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When I started reading this book it only took me the first few chapters to notice that the vocabulary and sentence structure are superb. Faulkner puts the words in his sentences so perfectly it strikes me as a work of art. Descriptive sentences like this with outstanding vocabulary give the reader a distinct image of what Faulkner is describing Ã¢â¬Å"It wheels up like a motionless hand lifted above the profound desolation of the ocean; beyond it the red road lies like a spoke of which Addie Bundren is the rimÃ¢â¬ Faulkner uses a myriad of descriptive adjectives, vocabulary and metaphors in this an many of his sentences to give the novel a true ring. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Faulkner novel indeed does have its disturbing strangeness however. The entire family acts as if they each are from a different species of human. Their awkward personalities and strange minds give an unpleasant shutter to the tone of the story making it somewhat uncomfortable to read and even more uncomfortable once you put the book down because it leaves you somewhat bewildered. Perhaps the story would have been better if it were from one narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view instead of a plethora of them. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Positive or Negative itÃ¢â¬â¢s a tough argument to deny that this is truly a classic novel. The artistic sentences and the demented minds of the characters create a whirlwind in the readers mind, sucking them into the book and making them feel as if they were part of the story.
ENCEPHALITIS Encephalitis literally means an inflammation of the brain, but it usually refers to brain inflammation caused by a virus. It may also be called “acute viral encephalitis or aseptic encephalitis';. Encephalitis is an infectious disease of the Central Nervous System characterized by pathologic changes in both the gray and white matter of the spinal cord and brain. It may be due to specific disease entity such as rabies or an arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus), or it may occur as a sequela of influenza, measles, German measles, chicken pox, herpes virus infection, small pox, vaccinia, or other diseases. The specific viruses involved may vary. Exposure can also occur through insect bites, food or drink, or skin contact. Once the virus has entered the blood stream, it can localize the brain causing inflammation of brain cells and surrounding measures. White blood cells invade the brain tissue as they try to fight off the infection. The brain tissue swells (cerebral edema) and can cause destruction of nerve cells, bleeding with in the brain (intracerebral hemorrhage), and brain damage. This can cause neurologic deficits such as parplysis, speech changes, increased intracranial pressure, respiratory failure, seizure disorders, and shock can occur. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Mild cases absent superficial reflexes Sudden fever ***Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã exaggerated deep tendon reflexes Poor appetiteÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã opisthotnos Loss of energyÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã nuchal rigidity General sick feelingÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã increases resp. tract problems Severe Cases High feverÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã sore throat Severe HA ***Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã malaise N/V ***Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã  ... ...rin 90% resp. tract infection 5 to 7% prior illnes (chicken pox) S/S: 5-7 days after viral illness, n/v, mental changes, lethargy, indifference, confusion, delirious, rapid breathing as progresses breathing sluggish, seizures, coma may die TX: no cure support heart, lung, and brain function Keep blood levels balanced. ICU. Blood samples, I&O, adjusting blood by IV, b/p, icp, breathing monitored 1st recognized in 1963 by acute encephalopathy and fatty infiltration of liver and pancreas, heart, kidney, spleen, and lymph nodes. Mortality rate as high as 80% S/S: hepatomegaly without jaundice in 40%, encephalopathy and altered liver function, combative behavior TX: blood electrolytes controlled carefully, liver biopsy NI: Neurological assessment, temp, alleviate hyperthermia, seizure precautions, I&O, impaired hepatic function, (signs of bleeding), tell don’t give aspirin. Peak incidence age 6. 1st noted in 1974 with 400 cases following epidemics of influenza B outbreak and chicken pox TX: aggressive support to correct metabolic abnormalities (hypoglycemia) and hemorrhage from blood clotting disorders Since 1987 no more than 35 cases/yr nation wide (usually
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Most of us, politically, mentally, morally, socially, live somewhere between the negative pole of Robert BoltÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"terrifying cosmos [where] Ã¢â¬ ¦no laws, no sanctions, no mores obtainÃ¢â¬ (xvi), the nadir of the human spirit and self, and the positive pole he finds in Thomas More, who makes, not only in oaths but in all his dealings, Ã¢â¬Å"an identity between the truth Ã¢â¬ ¦ and his own virtue,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"offers himself as a guaranteeÃ¢â¬ (xiii-xiv) Ã¢â¬â a self which proves incorruptible by either promise or punishment. Near to MoreÃ¢â¬â¢s level of righteousness are his wife and daughter, though he feels the need to protect them from perjuring themselves, a corruption stemming from one of the hardest temptations, protecting their family from harm. Rich and Cromwell are nearer to the lower pole in the play, the former making the complete arc from innocence to its opposite, and the latter starting from a place of moral bankruptcy and guiding Rich there with him. In between is the political corruption of King Henry who wonÃ¢â¬â¢t let Ã¢â¬Å"all the Popes back to St. Peter [get] between me and my dutyÃ¢â¬ (54), and of WoolseyÃ¢â¬â¢s appeal to More along patriotic and anti-war lines. With the exception of More, and those who anchor themselves to him like his family and Will Roper, they are all, like the BoatmanÃ¢â¬â¢s wife, Ã¢â¬Å"losing [their] shape, sir. Losing it fastÃ¢â¬ (28). Richard Rich is the playÃ¢â¬â¢s most developed exemplar of the gradual, and gradually accelerating, course t hat leads, through corrupt action, to corruptionÃ¢â¬â¢s end-point: a shell without a self. As the Common Man, in the guise of Matthew, correctly predicts, Rich Ã¢â¬Å"come[s] to nothingÃ¢â¬ (17), despite his final worldly status, symbolized by his rich robes which, as that same Man says elsewhere of all clothing, say nothing about the man inside them, Ã¢â¬Å"barely cover[ing] one manÃ¢â¬â¢s nakednessÃ¢â¬ (3). Oliver Cromwell, a disciple of Machiavelli, and unashamedly corrupt, is RichÃ¢â¬â¢s teacher and exhorter along that road. Rich is bullied into telling Cromwell information that might harm Thomas More, a betrayal. Cromwell uses this sin as a teaching opportunity Ã¢â¬â the more you give in to corruption (and therefore the less of you there is left to struggle against it), the easier it becomes: CROMWELL There, that wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t too painful, was it? RICH (laughing a little and a little rueful) No! CROMWELL ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s all there is, and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll find it easier next time. (76) Richard Rich sums up the teachings of Machiavelli, embodied in Cromwell, as quintessentially empty (though Rich is too fearful for his worldly status to be afraid of the legitimately fearful consequence of following those teachings): Ã¢â¬Å"properly apprehended, [Macchiavelli] has no doctrine. Master Cromwell has the sense of itÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (13). In following Cromwell into philosophical corruption, Rich will reap the rewards of such pragmatism. More, at the apex of RichÃ¢â¬â¢s ascent to influence and wealth (heÃ¢â¬â¢s been named Attorney General for Wales as a reward for perjury), reminds Rich that Ã¢â¬Å"it profits a man nothing to give his soul for the whole worldÃ¢â¬ (158). That word, Ã¢â¬Å"nothing,Ã¢â¬ both represents that he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t gain anything worth having, and that he will, in consequence, add to the absence of his being Ã¢â¬â what he will gain is nothingness. The reasons Rich and Cromwell are tempted are simple in that they (the reasons) are particular to self-profit (More, and perhaps Bolt through More, would find that an ironic term): personal wealth, influence and power, and escape from suffering. Cardinal Woolsey tempts More with a form of corruption less black-and-white: not merely CromwellÃ¢â¬â¢s short-sited Ã¢â¬Å"administrative convenienceÃ¢â¬ (73), but a seemingly moral and patriotic act: possibly preventing a war of succession like the War of the Roses had been. Ã¢â¬Å"Oh your conscience is your own affair,Ã¢â¬ the Cardinal tells More, Ã¢â¬Å"but youÃ¢â¬â¢re a statesman! Do you remember the Yorkist wars? All right [my solution to this problem is, in that it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t perfectly moral,] regrettable, but necessaryÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ (22). It is a dilemma: whether the good of a country (or the prevention of an evil to a country) somehow outweighs the evil of achieving that end by corrupt means. MoreÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"horrible moral squintÃ¢â¬ (19), as Woolsey calls it, sees through the CardinalÃ¢â¬â¢s assumption that such corruption, simply because it has a good in sight for that greater self that is oneÃ¢â¬â¢s homeland, wonÃ¢â¬â¢t open the door to further corruption, as a precedent that many (as it affects many) will follow, that will in fact Ã¢â¬Å"lead their country by a short route to chaosÃ¢â¬ (22). The form of corruption with which Thomas More will have to grapple most desperately, and from which he will protect his family most carefully, is the temptation to act against conscience, not for personal gain, or for the sake of an abstract like Ã¢â¬Ëthe common good,Ã¢â¬â¢ but for loved ones. More knows that temptation, in this case to perjure themselves for his own sake, might topple even the upright Alice and Margaret. For that eason, despite the anger and suffering his wife and daughter evidence at being kept in the dark, he never once opens his mind to them about those issues (the real reason behind his resignation, which lands them in poverty, and imprisonment over taking an oath, which deprives them of father and husband, and puts them in danger) Ã¢â¬â a relief he must have craved were they the picture of understanding. However, though they are not Ã¢â¬â he tellÃ¢â¬â¢s Margaret Ã¢â¬Å"the KingÃ¢â¬â¢s more merciful than you; he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t use the rackÃ¢â¬ ( 142) Ã¢â¬â he holds firm. This he also does for himself, never taking the oath and perjuring himself to God (as, he says, Ã¢â¬Å"what is an oath then, but words we say to GodÃ¢â¬ (140)), though he knows his family will suffer his ultimate loss. For that reason, though, he can go to his death with a special tranquility, telling the headsman Ã¢â¬Å"you send me to God Ã¢â¬ ¦ He will not refuse one who is so blithe to go to himÃ¢â¬ (160). We are left, then, with so many who died long ago, and the tale that history, and this play, tells of them. Richard Rich loses himself to corruption for purely personal gain, and while he lives with outward wealth, he is inwardly rotten, and ends in obscurity. Cardinal Woolsey, who ruthlessly pursues personal power and uses the same tactics in pursuit of patriotic goals, is remembered as an influencer of the policies of Europe, but, in the play, paves the way for greater evil, though he tries to stave it off by electing More Lord Chancellor. That evil is personified in Cromwell, a man with no morals, patriotic or otherwise. That Ã¢â¬Å"short route to chaosÃ¢â¬ More warns of shows up as well in the escalation of the scale of resistance Henry levels against the Church, eventually destroying most of the monasteries in England, and sparking a bloodily put down revolution. More, meanwhile, is an inspiration not only for his family, but has inspired conscience and nobility of spirit for almost five hundred years since his death, which is its own kind of immortality.
Friday, August 16, 2019
How does Murakami explores the concept of identity in the novel Ã¢â¬Å"Kafka on the shoreÃ¢â¬ ? It is challenging to convey what defines someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s identity, who we are, what we do, but most importantly what we think. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s inside our heads, in our unconsciousness when we actually allow ourselves to ponder on our true identity. When it comes to literature, authors explore their charactersÃ ´ true selves differently depending on the intention they have. In the novel Ã¢â¬Å"Kafka on the shoreÃ¢â¬ Murakami uses several unusual resources in his novel such as themes and intertextuality in order to explore the concept of identity within his writing. The author through the presentation of the relationship between dreams and reality and the concept of destiny linked to the notion of lack of control reveals the true self by inquiring into the inner darkness of the nature of his characters. He explores the unconscious side of an individual, which in his writing has a signific ant impact on the building of their fate implicitly blurring the boundary of importance between thought and action. Also acknowledging dreams as the only moment when our human condition allows people to be completely honest with ourselves. The following commentary in order to explore the concept of identity in MurakamiÃ¢â¬â¢s work will focus on the passage of Miss SaekiÃ¢â¬â¢s and KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s intercourse, chapter 29. The conception of dreams vs. reality in the novel plays a major role due to the fact that what the author wants is to make dreams as important as reality or even more so, given that it is when his characters are their true selves. Therefore this relationship is experienced by his audience very deeply, at first introducing the subject in a way anyone could relate to it but as the novel advances, the theme is developed to a level far beyond everyday life, nevertheless it is possible to get to an understanding of it. The geographical context of Japan in the novel aids this insertion of magical realism to the writing of Murakami. Concerning the cultural and religious aspects, Japanese society has a big flexibility on them, they have a blending of several religions such as Buddhism, Taoism, and Confucianism, boundaries are broken and people are free to live their own interpretation of their spirituality. Moreover, religion defines Japanese identity more than spirituality; itÃ¢â¬â¢s a way of living and thinking. Such freedom and individuality of thought is what enables the events in the novel to be conceivable, what allows the author to distort dreams and reality, and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s real against whatÃ¢â¬â¢s possible. Furthermore the inception of that liberal Japanese way of thinking empowers the reader to make a free interpretation of whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going on in the novel, acknowledging that being involved in the postmodernist movement there is never an absolute truth to it. Murakami plays with the readersÃ¢â¬â¢ mind as they are certainly expecting to find absolute answers and end up being more confused trying to seek for them. In the specific extract of Miss SaekiÃ¢â¬â¢s and KafkaÃ¢â¬â¢s intercourse she is fulfilling her unconscious desire of sleeping with him. In fact the scene itself is presented in a way in which as readers we are not sure whether it is actually happening o r not. The author uses a mesmeric tone and changes the narrative voice to third person to create a dream like atmosphere Ã¢â¬Å"Before you know it, her dream has wrapped itself around your mind. Gently, warmly, like amniotic fluid.Ã¢â¬ In this quote the use of the third person is evidenced and the expression Ã¢â¬Å"wrapped around your mindÃ¢â¬ is what produces the mesmerizing tone as Kafka is clearly absorbed by this dream that has become a part of reality. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a very graphic scene in which the main character experiences the blurring of genuineness against his dreams Ã¢â¬Å"But you canÃ¢â¬â¢t locate the borderline separating dream and reality. Or even the boundary between whatÃ¢â¬â¢s real and whatÃ¢â¬â¢s possible. All youÃ¢â¬â¢re sure of is that youÃ¢â¬â¢re in a delicate positionÃ¢â¬ . In this scene Kafka is unable to control himself even when he knows that what he is doing is not right. Moreover, the fact that Miss Saeki accomplished her subconscious wish during h er sleep is reassured when she decides to embrace her desire and repeat the intercourse with Kafka in one of the following chapters. Another significant way, in which this theme is related to the character of Miss Saeki and her identity revealing through her unconsciousness, is the spiritual projection of her fifteen year old self that Kafka sees at night. It is possible to interpret that she projects herself this way during her sleep due to the fact that she is stuck in her distant, happier past. Revealing that what she truly wishes is to be back when she was 15 and reunite with her lover, which could be why she presents herself to Kafka, given that the resemblance between both could be interpreted as if he werenÃ¢â¬â¢t only her son, but the reincarnation of her lover. Then again what allows the reader to make these assumptions is the religious context of japan given that reincarnation is a part of some peoplesÃ ´ believes. For this particular element of the spiritual projection Murakami uses intertextuality to relate the events in the novel and clarify his perception on the subject. He deliberately makes a re ference to the tale of Genjy. In this tale Lady Rojuko fulfils her dark unconscious desires through her dreams by Ã¢â¬Å"becoming a spiritÃ¢â¬ without taking notice of it, just like Miss Saeki does. The important link between both events is that both characters could only carry out their desires during their sleep while they are their true selves. Miss Saeki is only able to seek the intercourse with Kafka while she is theoretically sleeping. Another parallel with the tale is when Nakata takes the place of Kafka and stabs his own father, eventually carrying unconsciously the course he was meant to. Perhaps this suggests that there is inner darkness in everyone and that dreams are the perfect moment to explore the darkness within our true selves Ã¢â¬Å"the world of grotesque is the darkness within usÃ¢â¬ Regarding the conception of destiny and the theme of lack of control in the novel, these are factors that as well enable the exploration of identity in MurakamiÃ¢â¬â¢s characters. Fate is perhaps one of the most significant elements of the novel developing throughout all of it. It is essentially presented as inevitable, the author foreshadows from the beginning whatÃ¢â¬â¢s going to happen with his main character. The reason why destiny is a factor beyond the individualÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ ´ control is because the author wants to state it isnÃ¢â¬â¢t only an uncontrollable force driving them. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s an actual part of who they are, an inner force, part of their human condition Ã¢â¬Å"Sometimes fate is like a small sandstormÃ¢â¬ ¦this storm is you. Something inside of you. So all you can do is give into itÃ¢â¬ . Therefore indeed destiny is identity, Kafka is omened that he will eventually kill his father and sleep with his mother, but this doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t happen due to fatality or chance, it happens because it is unconsciously what he wants and therefore what he is. This is proven when further on in the novel he accepts his curse; he embraces it, his love for his own mother and the death of his father. Nevertheless he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t carry out his curse completely aware that he is doing it, but in thought he actually wishes to do so, which is why it happens. This suggests that thought is indeed as important as actions, or even more so, as they are our pure intentions. Therefore this could be interpreted as a factor affecting the charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ karma as Shinto religion suggests and thus having an impact on their destiny. On the other hand, control is presented as something the characters lack, and when itÃ¢â¬â¢s linked to destiny therefore to identity what Murakami expresses is that they are not able to control who they are, what they want. This is shown in several ways for example something as simple as sex, Kafka finds himself unable to control his desire of sleeping with unconscious Miss Saeki although he is well aware that he is acting wrong. Ã¢â¬Å"I figure IÃ¢â¬â¢d better wake her up. SheÃ¢â¬â¢s making a big mistake, and I have to let her know. This isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a dreamÃ¢â¬âitÃ¢â¬â¢s real life. But everythingÃ¢â¬â¢s happening so fast, and I donÃ¢â¬â¢t have the strength to resistÃ¢â¬ In this way the reader can relate to the experience of the main character of not being able to resist what he deeply wants. To sum up, Kafka on the shore is a novel that is indeed charged with deep and complicated themes, metaphorically exploring several elements about human life and identity. Nevertheless Murakami manages to introduce such complexity in a way that the reader is able to understand and interpret his writing using resources such as intertextuality to clarify his take on the subject, or at least the reader is able to suggest he does. With the use of destiny, control and dreams vs. reality the author makes an interesting approach towards the exploration of identity stating that our thoughts are as much part of who we are as our actions, and even a more important part of our selves. Additionally he gives a vast importance to dreams, as they are the reflection of our minds, our true fears and desires. Perhaps he is stating that life should be much more like a dream, and in a way criticizing the conception of reality.