Sunday, March 31, 2019

Gas sensors on zinc oxide nanostructures

Gas detectors on bob up oxide nanostructures footGas demodulators taild on semiconducting climb up oxides atomic number 18 be widely used for perception spoiles and vapors. The initial sum was provided by the findings of Seiyama et al. in altogetheroy oxide- particle accelerator reaction tack togethers in 1962. It was take the standn that the electric caral conductivity of ZnO locoweed be inter miscellanyd by the presence of reactive particle acceleratores in the contrast. The merits of these demodulators include their reliability, imprint cost and easy implementation. Nanostructures of coat oxides bugger dour been found to be some magnetic coreive as heavy weapon- perceptual experience materials at elevated temperatures. Very popular spying materials are coat oxide semiconductors such as ZnO, SnO2, TiO2, and WO3.Gener entirelyy the qualifying of electric field (conductance, voltage, underground or the change of piezoelectric proceeds) of the per cept element is monitored as a bureau of the post ordnance density. Gas spotting elements normally become in air, in the presence of humidity and interfering gunmanes. A het substrate membrane is fitted with go discomfit on sensitive nanostructured semiconductor material which generates electric kayoedput signals once chemical substance substance reactions are initiated at their scratch. A habitual property of all these underc e realwhere work reactions is that they require signifi merchantmant levels of thermal activating to proceed at a measurable rate.Nanostructures of semiconducting oxides are widely used for foul up sensing collectible to their commodious protrude flying field to volume ratio and possibility of shade depletion of carriers deep down nanostructures when exposed to botches. nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a reddish-brown, broad(prenominal)ly reactive natural fuck up that reacts in the air to hit corrosive nitric acid as well as toxic organi c nitrates. The major man made source of NO2 emissions is high up-temperature fuel electrocution in motor vehicles and industries. These emissions are primarily in the fashion model of NO which gets oxidized in the atmo plain to NO2. The conversion rate depends on the ambient parsimony of NO and O3. If O3 is present, the conversion is really fast. Health and safety guidelines pop the question that humans should non be exposed to 3ppm or more NO2 shoot a line for periods longer than eight hours be convey of its toxicity. NO2 is a pulmonary irritant primarily bear on the upper respiratory remains in human beings. Continued or frequent exposure to high levels of NO2 potbelly cause inflammation of the lungs.Therefore, the schooling of a stable NO2 gasolene demodulator that commode detect passing low intentnesss of NO2 with high sensitivity and selectivity is super desirable. Such a demodulator can be used for environmental monitoring. It can besides be used in an ear ly warning system that detects the presence of NO2 earlier the critical concentration of NO2 is reached.In our work, we impart develop a demodulator for NO2 gas sensing found on our understanding in sensing element mechanism and synthesis of ZnO nanorods, using simple hydrothermal methods. The various answerance parameters of the detector, videlicet gas selectivity, sensitivity, retort and rec everywherey m will be study. The gas demodulator test-bench developed in COEN (Centre of Excellence in Nanoengineering), AIT, will be utilize for characterizing the demodulator performance.Chapter 2Literature reviewThis chapter is focused on the literature review of come forward oxide base semiconducting nanostructures used for gas sensing. The working principle of surface oxide gas sensors, measurement methods and synthesis mechanisms is include in this review.Metal oxide nanostructuresMetal oxides such as SnO2, WO3, TiO2 and ZnO possess high sensitivity to changes in their surrounding atmosphere at elevated temperatures. The sensing properties of metal oxides in form of thick or thin brings bring in been study to improve, by the addition of appalling metals namely Pd, Pt, Au, Ag in terms of selectivity and stability. In 1991, Yamazoe showed that decline of crystallite fall out-of-doors caused a huge advancement in sensor performance. In a low grain size of it metal oxide al well-nigh all the carriers are trapped in issue carrys and only a few thermal activated carriers are ready(prenominal) for conduction.From the point of view of device falsehood, first generation gas sensor devices were fabricate by thick dissipate technology. Then the material fabrication processes improved towards the thin film technology. The fabrication process for thin film technology namely physical and chemical vapour deposition was highly automated and offers high reproducibility. The electrical properties of both thin and thick film sensors drift due to t he grain porosity modification and grain term alteration.Several methods like addition of noble metals as catalysts or multiform oxides were put forward to improve the sensing performance of the gas sensors. The morphological engineering of metal oxide nanostructured thin films proved to optimize the performance of these types of gas sensors. The various run parameters such as chemical reaction magazine, output signal, selectivity and stability can be improved and tuned through the optimization of the structure. Using geomorphologic engineering method, the various geometric parameters of metal oxide gas sensing intercellular substance like grain size, agglomeration, film thickness, porosity can be subordinationled.The close forward step in gas sensing was achieved by the victorious preparation of stable wholeness crystal quasi- angiotensin-converting enzyme-dimensional semiconducting oxides (nanorods, nanotelegrams) leading to the third generation of metal oxide gas sensor s.Working principle of metal oxide gas sensorsConductometric metal oxide gas sensors depend on changes of electrical conductivity due to the interaction with the surrounding atmosphere. The normal out increaseal temperature of metal oxide gas sensors is within the range betwixt cc C and ergocalciferol C. The direct temperature should be high enough so that gas reactions occur in a time on the order of the desired response time and should excessively be low enough to avoid any variations in the pop of the sensing matrix. The single crystal structure synthesized at temperatures high than the direct temperature of the sensor shows high stability.Based on the study of a large range of oxides, the phenomenon of change in conductivity to the presence of reactive gases in air is common to oxides and not special(prenominal) to a few special(prenominal) eccentric persons. If the conductivity is too high, then an effect is not expected and in like manner if the conductivity is too low, then an effect will be rocky to measure. In practical covers, if an oxide sample has a resistivity in the midst of 104 and 108 Ocm at 300- 400 C, then it will function as a gas sensor when heated to a temperature in this range.The sign of response ( tube add or decrease) leads to a simple classification gases can be catego fount as oxidizing or reducing and oxides can too be separate as p or n type. P-type oxides show a ohmic apology profit in the presence of traces of reducing gases and resistance decrease to oxidizing gases. n-type oxides show opposite behaviour. This behaviour likewise correlates with the effect of changing atomic number 8 partial derivative pressure (PO2).Adsorption on open airsThe sensing mechanism in metal oxide gas sensors is related to ionosorption of species over their surfaces. The most important ionosorbed species when operating in ambient air are oxygen, water, carbon and its compounds. High concentrations of carbon can block surface sites of adsorption on a metal oxide. In the temperature range between atomic number 6 C and 500 C, oxygen ionosorbs over metal oxide in groyneecular (O2-) or atomic form (O-). and then the study of adsorption is of fundamental importance in the field of sensors.PhysisorptionIn this debilitatedest form of adsorption like van der waals forces, no true chemical bond between the surface and adsorbable (or reaction species) is established. This bonding is mainly due to the induced dipole moment of a unionised adsorbate interacting with its own image charges on the polarized surface. The bonding energy is rather weak in the order of 0.1 eV.ChemisorptionChemisorption corresponds to the creation of chemical bonds between the adsorbate and surface and results in the electronic structure perturbation. In gas sensors, the target gas whitethorn be chemisorbed or physisorbed on the surface. When the gas species adsorb on the surface, touchs are either dissociated or diffused in the sensi tive horizontal surface.Based on the Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Electron Paramagnetic study (EPR) studies, at lower operating temperatures, oxygen is considered to be adsorbed in bulwarkecular form (either as neutral O2 (ads) or charged O2(ads) 2- ) due to its lower activation energy. At higher temperatures it dissociates into atomic oxygen (either neutral O(ads) or independently ionized (charged) O(ads)- or doubly ionized O2(ads)- ). Finally at very high temperatures the loss of lattice oxygen (first surface and then bulk) takes place. When a reducing gas like CO comes into contact with the surface.These consume ionosorbed oxygen and in turn change the electrical conductance of metal oxide. The general effect is a change of the density of ionosorbed oxygen that is detected as an maturation of sensor conductance. Direct adsorption is also possible for the gaseous species like strongly electronegative NO2, which decreases the sensor conductance.NO2 absorption on tin oxide surfaces was canvass by temperature programmed desorption measurements and found that the adsorbates originating from NO2 are the homogeneous as those from NO, as NO2 molecule dissociates easily over the tin oxide surface. These adsorbates can be divided into cardinal types, two nitrosil types (Sn NO+ and Sn NO- ) and the nitrite type Sn O-N=O. The nitrite type does not play any role in gas sensing since it is not involved in any electron exchange with the bulk of the semiconductor.In practical applications, gas sensors are normally expected to operate in air, in the presence of humidity and interfering gases. In such cases, for operating temperatures in a range of 100 to 500 C, at the surface of the sensitive material various oxygen, water and carbon dioxide related species are present. Some gas species form bonds by exchanging electrical charge with specific surface sites and others may form dipoles. Dipoles do not affect the concentration of free charge carrier s and so they take on no impact on the resistance of sensitive layer. Fig.1 explains the simplified case of adsorbed oxygen ions and hydroxyl groups brink to an n-type metal oxide semiconductor. These adsorbed ions cause a band bending maculation the dipoles change the electron affinity when compared to the state before the adsorption .The changes of the work function (?F) are laid by band bending (qVs due to ionosorption) and changes in the electron affinity () due to building of dipoles at the surface (M d+ OH d-).Ec, Ec,s Energy level representing the bottom of the conduction band and at the surface respectively. Ev, Ev,s Energy level representing the top of the valence band and at the surface respectively. Evac vaccum level, EF Fermi level, Work function, Electron affinity.Sensor CharacteristicsThe characteristic of a sensor is classified into static and dynamic. Static characteristics can be measured when all the transient effects of the output signal have stabili zed in to steady state. Dynamic characteristics tend to describe the sensors transient behavior.Static characteristics predispositionSensitivity is the ratio of incremental change in the output of the sensor to its incremental change of the measurand in scuttlebutt. For example, if we have a gas sensor whose output voltage increases by 1 V when the oxygen concentration increases by 1000 ppm, then the sensitivity would be 1 mV/ppm. Generally, the sensitivity to the target gas is delimit as the percent reduction of sensor resistance.Sensitivity (%) = (Ra- Rg) / Ra 100,where Ra is the value of initial equilibrium resistance in air and Rg is resistance in the presence of a target gas. For convenience sometimes the sensitivity of gas sensor is expressed as the ratio of resistance in air over resistance in gas for reducing gases (Ra/Rg) and resistance in gas over resistance in air (Rg/Ra) for oxidizing gas.SelectivityThe sensors ability to measure a single section in the presence of ot hers is known as its selectivity. For example, an oxygen sensor that does not show a response to other gases such as CO, carbonic acid gas is considered to be discriminating.Selectivity = (sensitivity of gas1/sensitivity of gas2)Selectivity of the sensor is assessed by the ratio of sensitivity between the gases that is of interest to be detected over the gases that are uninteresting for signal detecting in equivalent concentrations. To improve selectivity to specific gases, sensor array technology is also being adapted.Stability and DriftThe sensors ability to score the kindred output value when measuring a fixed input over a period of time is termed as stability. Drift is the gradual change in the sensors response characteristics while the input concentration of the gas system constant. Drift is the undesired and unexpected change that is unrelated to the input. It may be attributed to aging, temperature instability, contamination, material degradation, etc. For instance, in a gas sensor, gradual change of temperature may change the baseline stability, or gradual diffusion of the electrodes metal into substrate may change the conductivity of a semiconductor gas sensor.RepeatabilityIt denotes the sensors ability to produce the same response for successive measurements of the same input, when all operating and environmental springs remain constant.ReproducibilityThe sensors ability to reproduce responses afterwards some measurement condition has been changed. For example, after shutting down a sensing system and subsequently restarting it, a reproducible sensor will show the same response to the same measurand concentration as it did prior to being shut down.HysteresisIt is the difference between output readings for the same measurand, when approached while increasing from the minimum value and the other while decreasing from the jacket value.Response TimeThe time taken by a sensor to arrive at a stable value is the response time. It is loosely expre ssed as the time at which the output reaches a trusted percentage (for instance 95%) of its lowest value, in response to a stepped change of the input. At the onset, the response time is very fast, followed by a long drawn tail before reaching steady state value, thus the response time are often expressed as 50% or 70% of the final time. Recovery time is defined as the time that the sensor takes to recover its resistance from exposed condition to the baseline value after target gas is cut out from the environmentDynamic Range or SpanThe range of input signals that will result in a meaningful output for the sensor is the dynamic range or span. All sensors are designed to perform over a specified range. Signals outside of this range may cause unacceptably large inaccuracies, and may even result in permanent damage to the sensor.Dynamic characteristicsThe dynamic characteristics of a sensor represent the time response of the sensor system. The various important dynamic characteristi cs of sensors are discussed below, gussy up timeRise time is defined as the time call for by the sensor response to change from 10% to 90% of it final steady state value.Settling timeIt is the time taken by the sensor response to settle down to within a indisputable percentage of the steady state value.Influence of contact electrodes on sensor performanceThe contact electrodes used in gas sensors can have both electrical and electrochemical roles. For thin wedge films, contact resistance plays an important role as dominant factor in overall resistance. The contribution of contact resistance is also extremely important for the case in which individual nanorods, nanowires or nanobelts are used as sensing layers. These electrodes are generally made of metals. They can also be fabricated from materials such as conductive polymers or conductive metal oxides.Although the notion of resistance change of the sensitive material when exposed to target gas is widely known, the overall resis tance of the sensor depends not only on the gas sensing material properties but also on parameters such as transducer morphology, electrode etc. When the sensitive layer consists only of a league continuous material and the thickness is larger than the Debye length, it can only partly depleted when exposed to target gas. In this case, the interaction does not go the entire bulk of the material. Two levels of resistance are established in parallel and this fact limits the sensitivity. Thin layer will be the go choice which can be fully depleted.The representation shows the influence of electrode-sensing layer contacts. Rc is resistance of the electrode-metal oxide contact, R11 is the resistance of the depleted region of the compact layer, R1 is the equivalent of serial resistance of R11 and Rc, and the equivalent series resistance of SRgi and Rc, in the porous and compact situations, respectively. Rgi is the average inter-grain resistance in the case of porous layer, Eb minimum of the conduction band in the bulk, qVs band bending associated with surface phenomena on the layer, and qVc also contains the band bending induced at the electrode-metal oxide contact.Improvement of selectivity by surface modificationsMixing metal oxides withMetals that function as catalystsBinary compounds and multi-component materialsDopingare the most common methods used to enhance the gas sensing performance of metal oxide gas sensors. These additives can be used for modifying the catalytic activity of the base oxide, favoring formation of active phases and improving the electron exchange rate. The interaction of gas with the sensing material, resulting in the gas sensitivity, is determined by the chemical properties of the sensor surface. contrasting surface atoms can be introduced on the surface of the metal oxide sensors. This surface modification leads to new chemical reactivity and enables the sensor to be operated at low temperatures.Nanoscale particles of noble metals ( Pd, Pt, Au and Rh) and oxides of other elements (Co, Cu and Fe) deposited on the surface of metal oxides can act as surface sites for adsorbates and promoters for surface catalysis. They create special adsorption sites and surface electronic states and as a result gas sensitivity, selectivity, rate of response can be altered. For achieving high gas response, the noble metal should create optimal conditions for both electron and ion (spillover) exchange between surface and reacting gas species.The nature of noble metals, their oxidation state and their distribution on the surface are determining factors in gas sensor sensitivity and selectivity. To attain the homogenous distribution of noble metal on the surface is very difficult. Surface morphology has a significant effect on the shape and distribution of catalysts. Noble metal clusters have a tendency to accumulate at step edges and kinks of metal oxides during their deposition.Catalysts based on noble metals can be poisoned by u mpteen organic and inorganic chemicals that contain sulphur (H2S, SO2, thiols) and phophorus. The excessive thickness of catalytic active additives can change their functions, turning into either shunting layer or active membrane filters, obstructing the penetration of detecting gas in the surface of gas sensing matrix. At certain conditions this quality can also be used for an improvement of gas sensors selectivity.It has been studied that the incorporation of additional phases ( diverse oxides) in nanocrystalline systems in small quantities can change the conditions of base oxide growth. SnO2 narcotised with Nb (0.1 4 mol%) causes a decrease in crystallite size from 220 nm for pure SnO2 to about 30 nm for Nb (0.1 mol%) doped samples. The additional influence observed due to doping is the change in film resistance. SnO2 doping by Nb and Sb in the range of 0.01 and 1.0 mol% during sol-gel preparation and annealed at 900 C leads to film resistance decrease of 100 to 1000 times respe ctively, while doping with In resulted in a rise in film resistance by a factor of 100. The effect of doping on gas sensing properties of metal oxide gas sensors is different from the catalytic activity of these additives.Improvement of selectivity by operating conditionsThe sensor material may be operated at a comparably wide range of operating temperatures (300 900 C) leading to different thermal energies for the surface reactions, differences may be reach by selecting the operating temperature, leading to a variation in gas sensitivity. A more improved version of this idea is to constantly increase or decrease the operating temperature of a given sensor and to continuously measure the variation of conductivity. This technique is known as temperature transient operation which gives more information in case of gas mixtures. To realize selective gas detection, sensor arrays are also constructed where several sensors showing different patterns of gas sensitivity are selected and simultaneously operated. A simple technique to obtain an array using one sensor is to modulate the operating temperature to different levels. Excessive increase of operating temperature may lead to a considerable drop of gas sensitivity. Moreover increasing working temperature can create conditions, where gas response will then be determined by change of bulk properties of material.Improvement of response and recovery time of gas sensorsA high speed gas switching system can be used to improve the response of the gas sensor. Yamazoe et al. studied the response and recovery properties of SnO2 porous film gas sensors using a high speed gas switching system. The developed system allows the rapid replacement of the gas atmosphere in the chamber between air and H2 (or CO). It was describe that the response speed of the sensor was fast, reaching a response time of less than 0.5s at 350 C. The rates of diffusion and surface reactions of these gases (H2 and CO) in the porous sensing film ar e high enough for the sensor to reach a steady state within a of a sudden time. However the resistance in air did not reach the received value by repeated switching. This incomplete recovery was attributed to the slow desorption of piss and carbonic acid gas formed on SnO2 by the surface reaction of H2 and CO respectively.Synthesis of 1-D metal oxide nanostructuresMetal oxide nanostructures synthesis methods are broadly categorized asSolution phase synthesis method, where the growth process is carried out in liquid. Since aqueous solutions are used, this process is otherwise termed as hydrothermal growth process.Gas phase synthesis method uses gaseous environment in closed chambers. The synthesis is carried out at high temperatures from 500 C to 1500 C.Zinc oxide (ZnO)ZnO is wide bandgap (Eg = 3.4 eV) II VI compound semiconductor which has a non-centrosymmetric wurtzite structure with polar surfaces and lattice parameters a = 0.3296 and c = 0.52065 nm. The structure of ZnO can b e described as a number of alternating planes composed of tetrahedrally coordinated O2- and Zn2+ ions, stacked alternatively along the c-axis. The tetrahedral coordination in ZnO results in piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties. The oppositely charged ions produce positively charged (0001)-Zn and negatively charged (000-1)-O polar surfaces, resulting in a normal dipole moment and spontaneous polarization along the c-axis.Hydrothermal Synthesis of Zinc oxide nanostructuresDifferent techniques namely sol-gel, spray pyrolysis, hydrothermal method, electrospinning and thermal evaporation are prevalent for the synthesis of atomic number 30 oxide nanoparticles and nanorods. The hydrothermal process is an environmentally friendly process and does not require a complex vacuum environment. The hydrothermal process is surface independent and provides good control over the morphology of the nanostructures. ZnO nanorods growth on glass substrates by thermal decomposition of hexamethylenete tramine (HMT) and zinc nitrate is reported by Baruah et al. Thermal degradation of HMT releases hydroxyl ions which react with Zn2+ ions from ZnO. The role of HMT is to supply the hydroxyl ions to drive the downfall reaction. Sugunan et al, have proposed that HMT being a long chain polymer and a nonpolar chelating agent, gets preferentially attached to the non polar facets of the zincitie crystal thereby cutting off the access of Zn2+ ions to them leaving only the polar (001) face for epitaxial growth.Metal oxide nanostructure based conductometric gas sensorsZinc oxideCharacterization of gas sensing properties of ZnO nanowires is reported by Ahn et.al. ZnO nanowires were fabricated by a selective growth method on imitate Au catalysts forming a nanobridge between two Pt towboat electrodes. The gas sensing properties were demonstrated using NO2 gas. The response as a function of temperature is shown to be highest at 225 C and linearly increased with the concentration of NO2 in the range of 0.5 3ppm and saturated beyond this range. The sensor performance is also compared with ZnO nanocrystals, Sn and In doped ZnO thin film. Also the nanobridge structure is shown to have fast recovery behaviour because the desorbed gas molecules can be easily removed off from the nanowires surfaces.Lupan et.al demonstrated the gas sensing behaviour of Al doped ZnO films synthesized by successive chemical deposition method. Successive chemical solution deposition method was reported to be simple and requires non-sophisticated equipment to produce nanostructures with high efficiency. Nanostructured ZnO films doped with Al showed a high sensitivity to CO2 than undoped ZnO films.Characterization and gas sensing properties of ZnO hollow spheres is reported by Zhang et.al. Different concentrations of NH3 and NO2 at different temperatures were used to test the gas sensor. ZnO hollow sphere sensor exhibited extremely different sensing behaviors to NH3 and NO2. The optimum operating te mperature of the sensor was 200 C for NH3 and 240 C for NO2 respectively. The gas sensor exhibited much higher response to NO2 than to other gases at 240 C implying good selectivity and potential application of the sensor for detecting NO2.Tin oxideLaw et.al, analyzed room temperature sensing properties of a single crystalline tin oxide nanowire sensor towards nitrogen dioxide. NO2 chemisorb strongly on SnO2 surface and at room temperature desorption is not complete when the NO2 is removed. UV light was used to activate both the adsorption and desorption process. In the dark, oxygen adsorbs on the surface capturing electrons from the semiconductor and creates a depletion layer. When exposed to UV, photo-generated holes migrate to the surface and recombine with electrons releasing oxygen ions, with an increase in conductance. The detection limit was 2 10 ppm of nitrogen dioxide.Kolmakov et.al studied the effect of catalysis in tin oxide single wire FET structures. The sensing capabi lities of SnO2 single nano-wires and nanobelts in a FET configuration before and after functionalization with Pd catalyst was analysed. The improvement in the sensing performance after catalysation was reported to be the combined effect of spill-over of atomic oxygen formed catalytically on Pd clusters and migrating on SnO2 surface and also to the back spill-over effect in which weakly bound molecular oxygen migrates to Pd clusters and are catalytically dissociated.Indium oxideIndium oxide nanowires have been tested towards ethanol by Xiangfeng et.al. A mixture of In2O3 nanowire and polyvinyl alcohol solution was coated on aluminum oxide tubes with two gold contacts at the end a heating wire was inserted in the tube to operate in the temperature range 100 500C. The resistance of the nanowires was monitored in presence of air, ethanol and other gases. The highest response was obtained with ethanol, the detection limit was estimated to be equal to 100 ppm.Molybdenum oxideMolybdenum o xide nanorods based gas sensing was reported. The MoO3 nanorods were characterized by high response to ethanol and CO at temperatures in the range of 100 C. The response of thin films with the same structure was comparatively studied and nanorods based sensor resulted in one order of magnitude more sensitive due to the high surface to volume ratio and reduced lateral dimensions of the nanorods.Other metal oxidesSawicka et.al. presented the nitrogen sensing properties of tungsten oxide nanowires disposed(p) with electrospinning. The effect of processing parameter variations was studied and a comparison with thin films prepared by sol-gel was also presented. WO3 nanowires showed give out NO2 sensing performances compared to sol-gel processed films due to increase in surface reach of nanowires.A large amount of literature is available on the gas sensing properties of carbon nanotubes. Only little attention is put in the studies of gas sensing properties of metal oxide based tubular s tructures. Varghese et.al. studied the atomic number 1 sensing properties of titania nano-tubes. The tests were performed in nitrogen atmosphere and 1% H2. The response time increased with temperature and the response time was 2-3 min.NO2 gas sensors based on ZnO nanostructuresLiu et.al reported the NO2 gas sensing properties of vertically aligned ZnO nanorod arrays prepared by hydrothermal method with zinc acetate and hexamethylenetetramine. The seed layer was deposited by inaudible spary pyrolysis. The aqueous hydrothermal solution was prepared by mixing equimolar ratio of zinc acetate dehydrate and HMT. The hydrothermal growth was carried out in a Teflon-lined unspotted container. The substrate was put in the solution with the seeded face down and the container was sealed and kept at 110C for three hours. The nanorod sensor shows a higher sensitivity than the ZnO film based sensor prepared by unhearable spray pyrolysis. The enhanced sensitivity is attributed to the higher re flection ratio of the nanorod structure and the sensitivity increases with the length of the nanorod. The relative response of the sensor is linearly proportional to NO2 concentration in the 0.2 5 ppm range.The NO2 gas sensing properties of semiconducting type gas sensors with channels composed of non-agglomerated, necked ZnO nanoparticles were investigated by Jun et.al. The heat treatment of the nanoparticles at 400C led to their neck and coarsening. The slight necking of the nanoparticles with their neighbors also enhanced the conductivity of the channels, due to the grave of the potential barrier. The response of the necked nanoparticle based sensor was reported to be as high as 100 when exposed to 0.2 ppm of NO2 at 200 C.NO2 gas sensor based on ZnO nanorods grown by ultrasonic irradiation was reported to very high sensitivity with a very low detection limit of 10 ppb at 250C. Sonochemical route was employed for the fabrication of vertically aligned nanorods on a Pt electrode patterned alumina substrate. The total time requir

The Modernization Of China And Its Impact Environmental Sciences Essay

The Modernization Of mainland China And Its Impact Environmental Sciences EssayThe issue of spheric warming started means back in the early 1990s and since then there has been maturement international concerns on combating worldwide warming. In a step to perplex all nations on board, United Nations Framework Convention on humour Change (UNFCC) was established in 1992, in Rio de Janeiro (Yu, 2008). The main objective of accordance was to deliberate on reducing green house gases emanations by various(prenominal) countries worldwide and especially those countries who are the main emitters of degree Celsius paper. Because of the direct link of this treaty to the parsimoniousness, many an(prenominal) nations are skeptical on signing to the treaty. Yu (2008) asserted that, moderateness of climate change will be achieved by substantial quislingism under the UNFCCC (P.1).Global warming has had a potential negative suck in-to doe with on the chinas environment. It has been found that since 1990, china has experienced environmental degradation receivable to this global warming. In fact Yu (2008) said that due to the adverse inwardness on the chinas environment, their leaders have had to rethink more about the issue. in that location are many effects of global warming such as environmental degradation, sea level rise and severe endure patterns that may lead to coastal flooding. Today chinaware is believed to be whizz of the worlds defiler of environment owing to its growth in economy boosted by qualified supply coal and rock oil production (Yu, 2008).Interestingly, global warming is caused by human activities such as use of oil, fossil fuels, and burning of coal which leads to release of carbon dioxide and green house gases into the atmosphere. The highschool proportion of this carbon dioxide in the atmosphere generates extreme global warming (Maslin, 2004). Sadly, rise in temperature in the planet-earth- poses a potential threat to the exis tence of human beings. Negal (1994) sight that the advancement of technology and economic growth and modernization has to a vauntingly extend contributed to the global warming. He warns that global warming and unusual weather patterns threaten the very existence of the globe (p.98). Nagel (1994) when writing about Asiatic development and public policy, describes china as being confronted with two interrelated challenges maintaining technological advancement duration combating ecological catastrophe generated by this technology.The enlarge in Chinas population over the years has conduct to the increase in the environmental contamination. According to Nagel (1994), about sixty cities in China have badly been affected by smog and factory emissions (p.199) and some cities in the Northern part projected high levels of carbon dioxide and other pollutants. Because of uprising demand for use of coal and oil, China is certainly predicted to have a significant increase in emission o f Carbon dioxide. About 12.0 one thousand thousand tons in 2030, which will be the highest ever attained by any nation have been projected (Lloyed, 2009, p.51). Lloyed warns that, if Chinas projected emission is what to go by, then it will be impossible to control the effects of global warming, however much, other countries try to minimize their emissions.Although china is one of the exceedingly populated countries in the world with over 1.2 billion people, it is also one of the sufferingest (Harris, 2003). To support this growing population, China increase its industrial growth which translated to change magnitude supply of food and other necessities within the country. According to Harris (2003), issue of global warming in China has aroused due to the modernization of economy and diversification of energy to feed the growing modernization. In respect to this, China increased its energy use by 208 percent between 1970 and 1990, while coal rose by 69.9 percent (Harris, 2003). Ev entually, China recorded round 13.4 percent of the world carbon dioxide emissions which rated them as the second, after the United States, largest maker in the world.The Chinas policy on energy is informed by the schema of increasing production and supply. In 1980s, China started facing acute paucity of energy due to its growing industries other sources of energy that are economic and viable were needed urgently to boost the energy shortage. Therefore they resorted to oil which was easily available and required little amount of capital. To be specific, china uses a lot of coal in their industrial sector as compared to other nations in the world where their alternative sources of energy such as electricity are being used. Harris (2003) says that Chinas energy has been misused by users because of its scurvy price policy of coal, inefficiency of industrial machines such as boilers which burn coal, and poor infrastructure (p.47)The outcome of all this overuse and misuse of energy was a serious environmental catastrophe. Harris (2003)described that China encountered serious wet shortages, land degradation, water pollution but among the most serious environmental problems is atmospheric pollution (p.47). In addition, respiratory complications increased due to pollution of air caused by incomplete combustion of coal from industries. There was also destruction of crops, woods and fisheries accelerated by unprecedented levels of acid rain (Harris, 2003).In conclusion, the Chinas modernization has had adverse impact on global warming. To start with, industrial expansion of China sparked high demand of fuel.In response to this demand, China increased supply of coal and oil. The rise in demand for the use of these carbon emitters fuel has had a devastating effect on China and level(p) global climate change. Carbon dioxide and greenhouses gases which origins from burning of coal and oil, rises the earth temperature. The high emission of carbon dioxide in China ha s been caused by three primal factors low pricing policy of coal in China which led to the less conservation of energy by industries low efficiency level of machines used by Chinese industries to burn coal and poor infrastructure. It is predicted that by 2030, China will be the leading producer of carbon dioxide with suppose 12.0 billion tons. The ramifications of this will be felt in so many generations to come. This is a collective responsibility for every nation towards the protection of the forthcoming generation. Therefore all nations should commit themselves in reducing the carbon dioxide emission to the environments.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Development of Breast Cancer Campaign

Development of Breast crab lo single-valued function urge onExplain the rationale for the calling card and evaluate approaches to communicating a health core.Kartsonaki Christini-OlgaCommunication in the Helath C atomic number 18 ContextINTRODUCTIONThe main determination of many campaigns is to give priority on increasing early spying and probable ginmill of a disease (Jacobsen Jacobsen, 2011). Patient postponement of postulation for medical help after discovering symptoms is an important f goor that leads to late story diagnosis. Low crabmeat consciousness (including knowledge c nod offly pubic louse symptoms, attention of crab louse development, risk factors, treatment soundness or early spotting results) is cultivating risk for patient delay (MacDonald et al, 2004). Campaigns that focus on public genus Cancer sense had been associated with progress in raising awareness and establishing early diagnosis of netcer, but the long-term returns were dubious. Ab sence of evidence regarding the effectiveness of preventives in an bowel movement to promote genus Cancer awareness is hindering development of policy and topical anesthetic action (Austoker et al., 2009). Knowledge of screening, screening uptake and self-checking behavior for example dumbbell checking (including titmouse self -examination) or testicular checking may be considered to be important elements of crabmeat awareness.Breast cancer is the roughly frequently occurring slip of cancer that imperils women in the Western world. It is estimated that today one out of club women are affected by the disease. When it comes to age, the disease affects all age groups from 20 to 90 eld. Chances a char gets infected probatively accession with age, firearm the risk of developing the disease quadruples after menopause. Unfortunately, 25% of cases involve modern women younger than 45 years (www.bcactionfund.org).One conjecture of the enquiry findings in this paper is that well- accomplished health campaigns may lead to positive results if they point to outcomes other(a) than increase diagnoses. For example, intensifying fundraising options or enabling support groups for patients. Promoting early detection of chronic diseases that results in much effective, is associated with higher survival rates (Eyre, 2004) and threepenny treatment at an early stage (Cohen, 2008), should be a significant public health field.CAMPAIGNS FOR BREAST CANCERAlthough efforts to increase awareness of mammilla cancer can be started about 1913, no ongoing unionized efforts to increase breast cancer awareness existed until the mid-1970s, when a number of teensy advocacy groups began to publish culture about treatment options and proceedss (Lerner, 2002). The bailiwick Breast Cancer sentiency Month (NBCAM), as takings were established in October 1985 and is a high profile nationwide campaign (Catalano, 2003). Itss primary goal is to encourage regular breast examinat ion so that disease can be diagnosed at an early stage. Moreover breast cancer funding continues to be a priority area for the national government (Jacobsen Jacobsen, 2011). An increasing number of voluntary organizations, governmental agencies, and private corporations engender sponsored various events like wear pink bracelet that show hike and support for those affected by breast cancer. Media coverage of breast cancer has increased markedly in recent years, and October months have received good more coverage than other months. Free or reduced woo mammograms have been offered to low-income and uninsured women (MMWR, 2005).Other campaigns include discourses as public education programmes to increase cancer awareness (Blumenthal et al, 2005 Skinner, Arfken Waterman, 2000). Educational programmes delivered in pure groups increase breast cancer knowledge and screening uptake and promoting inwardness public exposure to others in the social network . Multimedia programmes ha ve been created to promote cancer knowledge and self-checking using calling cards, leaflets and shower gel in workplaces, health clubs and leisure centers (McCullagh, Lewis, Warlow 2005).Although mass media health communication strategies can effectively promote health education, and fix health awareness, decisions and practices (Haider Kreps, 2004), interpersonal communication channels are regarded as highly influential to persuade state to change health relate behaviors (Yanovitzky Blitz, 2000).All the above trials were heterogeneous in terms of nature of intervention, populations and outcomes measured and indeed there are limited evidence of effectiveness of interventions to promote cancer awareness. There are good evidence that Breast Cancer Awareness Month in the get together States promotes diagnosis of breast cancer at an early stage (Catalano et al, 2003 Gabram et al, 2008).POSTER- METHODSThe poster communication channel consists of the main message that is summed u p in the phrase why should your life be break by a thread, which is world projected and filtered through a mixed cognitive and affective message dodge.A cognitive message dodging is using reason to present arguments or facts to an consultation that require cognitive processing. The main purpose of a cognitive message strategy is to create an advertisement that exit have an impact on passels beliefs or knowledge and suggest potential benefits. In the precise case of the breast cancer poster, the product is the examination and the benefit is prevention and reduction of the risk of cancer manifestation. The intention of this strategy is to present the hearing with rational founds of information about a product or service and then to motivate them to develop a positive feeling about that product (Clow Baack, 2007, p.201). In the poster the cognitive message strategy can be find within the risk information that is organism presented with a ratio in relation to the number of wo men who develop cancer during their life sentence in Greece.We found some evidence that tailored gull information was more effective than general information tailored information increased median(a) cancer knowledge scores by about 11% compared with no information and 4% compared with general information (De Nooijer, Lechner, Candel de Vries, 2004). Tailored print information modified attitudes towards paying attention to and seeking help for symptoms tho genuinely modestly compared with no information (de Nooijer et al, 2004).The second part of the poster method is the affective message strategy. This kind of approach attempts to evoke feelings or emotions and identify them with the product. Affective strategies are causing emotions that lead the interview to act favorably towards the presented good or service and subsequently affect their argument process (Clow Baack, 2007 p.203). The breast cancer poster is making an attempt to waken powerful emotions and generate posit ive attitudes and decisions. People subjected to the message become more prone to choose examination and reduce that way the risk of being affected by cancer. The word life in the message is very powerful and demonstrates the positive side of affective message strategy.Emotional advert is apply here in combination with framing of risk strategy (negative frame). Switching from positive to negative feelings leads to the establishment of a more straightforward emotional framework in which the audience feels compelled to make a decision. The emotion that is usually associated with risk is anxiety (Joffe, 2003). Anxiety, worry and fear are broadly speaking perceived as the intermediate goal of many risk communication efforts and in particular, public health communications (Lynch de Chernatony, 2004). Although the primary target is hobble behaviour, the feelings of anxiety, worry and fear are considered to be an essential part of the need initiation process. In the poster this is b eing presented with help of the visuals. A woman that has lost her breast makes passel think about what they have to lose and re-evaluate their health priorities. The poster uses moderate fear to induce a current amount of stress to the audience, because an existing anxiety level can influence the effect of the message. High fear has been proven to be the least effective leading to blocking of information and inhibition of action. Moderate fear is the most effective (Mc Guire, 1968).In order to develop an effective communication framework, the poster features an unknown woman. A celebrity may be likeable or attractive, but he or she may not be viewed as trustworthy. Trustworthiness is the degree of confidence or the level of acceptance the audience places in the spokespersons message. A trustworthy spokesperson helps people intend the message. Likeability and trustworthiness are highly related and in that sense, namelessness eliminates the risk of failing to deliver the message due to a regretful selection of a celebrity. At this point, use of the principle of similarity is being made. An ordinary every-day woman is someone people can relate to. The audience is more inclined to be influenced by a message delivered by a person who is somehow familiar. To take this even further, the appearance of an average person, helps overcoming the obstacle of optimistic bias. The optimism bias (also known as unrealistic or comparative optimism) is a cognitive bias that causes a person to believe that they are less at risk of experiencing a negative event compared to others. Taylor and Brown (Joffe, 2003) assert that 95% of the population exhibit unrealistic optimism in relation to a range of risks (Weinstein Klein 1996).A certain amount of flexibility in accommodating the needs of participating fraternity is important for ensuring intervention integrity and can ultimately influence the effectiveness of the intervention. It is important to pattern and implement an a dvertising process that will help both researchers and communities date each others perspectives, minimize the barriers of access to the specific service (examination) and ensure that the goals and priorities of both parties are met. In the poster this criteria is met in the informational piece about free examinations in Aretaiio Hospital (Westmaas, Gil-Rivas Silver, 2006).The poster is based on the wellness Belief Model (HBM), which was developed in the 1950s to annunciate individual response to, and utilization of, screening and other preventive health services. Accordingly, the response and utilization of disease prevention programs will be predicated on an individuals perceived seriousness of the disease, severity of the disease, perceived benefit of services and barriers to accessing such service (Airhihenbuwa Obregon, 2000). In general the HBM is a rational-cognitive object lesson and assumes a rational decision-maker. Most adolescents, and many adults, do not front to a pproach the breast-cancer issue from such a logical perspective, but attend quite capable of discounting risks and optimistically perceiving themselves as invulnerable to harm. (Freimuth, 1992, p.101).The HBM which has been widely used to frame research studies related to the prediction of health-related behaviours in relation to health belief patterns, was selected as the frame of reference for the current study of classic womens breast cancer screening behaviours (Becker, 1974). Womens self-reported breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and perceptions of support, and the components of the HBM (perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, cues to action, self-efficacy) were explored in this campaign (Sadler et al., 2007).The poster will be located on apartment billboards, n clinic waiting rooms, on pharmacy walls to keep up visual consistency (Clow Baack, 2007). Repeatedly seeing a specific run across or visual display helps embed it in long-term memory. The last pr inciple is to create an effective flowExcept for the above poster, leaflets will be distributed at bridle-path events and the direct communication will be used due direct mailing to promote breast cancer screening, street promotion, outbound calls to women who signed application forms at the street promotions, small group educational sessions (Park et al., 2011).Therefore the interpersonal communication will be boosted with street promotions, direct mail-outs, and promotion of specialistsrecommendations (Slater et al., 2005). Direct mail interventions may represent a more promising population-based strategy for promoting cancer screening including mammography. It is also a relatively efficient and inexpensive way to reach individuals in their homes, including people not typically exposed to mass media (Park et al., 2011).CONCLUSIONMore research is needed to evaluate the extent to which campaigns lead to cumulative increases in public awareness and year-round behavioral changes, to identify which types of awareness campaigns are most successful in achieving various well-defined outcomes, and to examine which segments of the population are most responsive to different types of awareness campaigns.REFERENCESAustoker, J., Bankhead, C., Forbes, LJL., Atkins, L., Martin, F., Robb, K., Wardle, J., Ramirez, AJ. (2009). Interventions to promote cancer awareness and early presentation systematic review. British journal of Cancer, 101, S31S39Becker, G. S. (1974). A possible action of amicable Interactions. daybook of Political Economy, 82 (6), 1063-1093.Blumenthal, D.S., Fort, J.G., Ahmed, N.U., Semenya, K.A., Schreiber, G.B., Perry, S., Guillory, J. (2005). Impact of a two-city community cancer prevention intervention on African Americans. J Natl Med Assoc, 97, 14791488.Catalano, R., Winett, L., Wallack, L., Satariano, W. (2003). Evaluating a campaign to detect early stage breast tumors in the United States. European Journal of Epidemiology, 18, 545-550.Clow, KC. B aack, D. (2007). Executional Framework. Integrated Advertising, Promotion, and Marketing Communications. Third Edition. Pearson Education. 196-221Cohen, J.T., Neumann, P.J., Weinstein, M.C. (2008). Does preventive awe save money? Health economics and the presidential candidates. New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 661-663.De Nooijer, J., Lechner, L., Candel, M., de Vries, H. (2004). Short- and long-term effects of tailored information versus general information on determinants and intentions related to early detection of cancer. Prev, Med 38, 694703Eyre, H., Kahn, R., Robertson, RM., ACS/ADA/AHA Collaborative Working Committee. (2004). countering cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes a common agenda for the American Cancer Society, the American Diabetes Association, and the American Heart Association. Stroke, 35 1999-2010.Freimuth, V.S. (1992). Theoretical Foundations of AIDS Media Campaigns. In Edgar, T., Fitzpatrick, M.A. and Freimuth, V.S., Eds., AIDS A Communication P erspective, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, 91-110Haider, M., Kreps, G.L (2004). Forty years of diffusion of innovation Utility and measure out in public health. Journal of health communication, 9 3-11Jacobsen, GD Jacobsen KH. (2011). Health Awareness Campaigns and Diagnosis Rates Evidence from issue Breast Cancer Awareness Month. Journal of Health Economics, 30 55-61Joffe, MM. (2003). A Case-Control Follow-up playing area for Disease-Specific Mortality. Biometrics, 59,(1) 115125Lerner, BH. (2002). Breast cancer activism past lessons, future directions. disposition Reviews Cancer, 2 225-230.Lynch,J. de Chernatony, L. (2004).The Power of Emotion Brand Communication in Business-to-Business Markets. Journal of Brand Management, 11(5) 40342MacDonald, S., Macleod, U., Mitchell, E., Weller, D., Campbell, N., Mant, D. (2004). Factors Influencing Patient and Primary Care Delay in the Diagnosis of Cancer Project. Final report to the Department of Health Glasgow, ScotlandMcCulla gh, J., Lewis, G., Warlow, C. (2005). Promoting awareness and practice of testicular self-examination. Nurs Stand.,19, 41-9.Mc Guire I,E. (1968). The Origin of Newtons Doctrine of Essential Qualities. Centaurus, 12(4), 233260MMWR. (2005) National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 54, 981.Park, K., Hyun Hong, W., Yeon Kye, S., Jung, J., Kim, G., Park, HG. (2011) Community-based intervention to promote breast cancer awareness and screening The Korean experience. BMC, 11, 468Skinner, C.S., Arfken, C.L., Waterman, B. (2000) Outcomes of the learn, plowshare live breast cancer education program for older urban women. Am J Public Health, 90 12291234Slater JS, Henly GA, Ha CN, Malone ME, Nyman JA, Diaz S, McGovern PG military force of direct mail as a population-based strategy to increase mammography use among low-income underinsured women ages 40 to 64 years. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2005, 14(10)2346-2352.Yanovitzky, I. Blitz, C.L. (2000). Ef fect of media coverage and physician advice on utilization of breast cancer screening by women 40 years and older. Journal of health communication, 5 117-134Weinstein, N. D., Klein, W. M. (1996). Unrealistic optimism Present and future. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 15, 18.Wellings K, Macdowall W Evaluating mass media approaches to health promotion a review of methods. Health Education 2000, 100(1)9.Westmaas, JL., Gil-Rivas, V., Cohen Silver, R. (2006) Designing and Implementing Interventions to Promote Health and Prevent Illness. Foundations of Health Psychology.INTERNEThttp//www.bcactionfund.org/ 1

Problems In Policy Implementation Policy And Education Education Essay

Problems In Policy Implementation Policy And instruction Education testIn a growing economy like UAE, there is a vital desire for numerous numbers of policies to regulate this growth and carry on with it. The direct effect of this growth is increase in the number of expatriates comp bed to guinea pigs those expatriates be from different heathen backgrounds that have their impact on the informational organization in UAE and the increase in demand for new educational policies to bus the problem of ethnical diversities in directs. Education constitution refers to the collection of laws, rules, and regulations that fall out the operation of education systems. Education occurs in many forms for many purposes through and through many institutions (early childhood education, kindergarten through to 12th grade, two and four category colleges or universities, graduate and professional education, adult education and job training). Education insurance insurance insurance can d irectly affect the education people engulf in at all ages, it includes tutor size, class size, school choice, school privatization, tracking, instructor education and certification, instructor pay, teaching methods, curricular content, diversity in class, graduation requirements, school infrastructure investment, values that schools ar expected to conserve and model, globalization challenges .The goals of new educational policies argon to provide all children with an mate educational opportunity under the change magnitude pressure of diversities within classrooms. The standard form _or_ system of governing in general essential include the responsibility are required changes in our methods of thinking and approaching education in such(prenominal) a way that all people are respected. More intercultural brain and an awareness of social and global knowledge volition need to be actively incorporated into our educational curriculums. Not only is knowledge of early(a) cultu res required but also creative and critical thinking go out be developed to acknowledge a leak new policies involving fittedities in multicultural education (Bennett, 2010). In UAE, we cant say that there is one single policy to circle with the problem of increasing in diversities at schools in UAE, and each school has its own policy to deal with this problem.The need for policyTharp (1994) states that The increasing diversity of cultural and ethnic free radicals in schools has led to a double increase in job for the implications of this demographic shift for education .Most of the schools in UAE are focusing on culture in their policies they are discussing how to create suitable educational culture in the classrooms and friendly atmosphere away the classrooms to increase levels of inter follow ups between the savants. cultural diversity is considered a major(ip) concern for many schools and it differs from school to another(prenominal) based on the types of students they have, and from what cultural backgrounds they come. Cultural diversity and Multicultural education is an idea, an approach to school reform, and a exploit for equity between students, social justice, and diverse cultural recognition that is needed in order to adapt with the globalization movement. Specialists within diverse cultural education emphasize different components and cultural groups. However, a probatory horizontal surface of consensus exists within the field regarding its major principles, concepts, and goals. A major goal of multicultural education is to restructure schools so that all students acquire the knowledge, attitudes, and skills needed to habit in an ethnically and racially diverse nation and world (Multicultural Education, 2010). effective and idealistic policy will increase the focus on cultural diversity will table service schools in maintaining educational equity for members of diverse racial, ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic groups, and to facil itate their participation as critical and reflective citizens in an inclusive national civic culture, but is there an existence of such policies at schools in UAE? The awareness of cultural diversity concept in education tries to provide students with educational experiences that enable them to maintain perpetrations to their community cultures as well as acquire the knowledge, skills, and cultural capital needed to shape in the national civic culture and community.Policies at offstage schools in DubaiThere are many policies related to cultural diversities at private schools in Dubai, but the focus will be on the policy at DIS that is dealing with the issue of cultural diversity in and after-school(prenominal) the classrooms. Social development culminates in its expansion to a global magnitude, where students federal agency themselves and their culture in an international perspective, understands and accepts cultural specifics and differences, and assume the individual and nati onal responsibilities towards international cooperation (DIS, 2010). This acknowledgment is an example of how private schools in Dubai are referring to cultural awareness in their policies, but questions on the factors interfering in policy formation, like rules and believes of the surrounding environment, capital punishment and the relevant instruments rise immediately into discussion. This quotation is the policy of how to deal with cultural diversity at DIS, but it is considered footling to express everything related to its values, alike general, it lacks of murder techniques, and it is considered implicit. Who put the policy and who will implement it, are considered major issue for the success of the policy I will represent a sample of Institutional perspective on educational policy and practice ( figure 1, Scott and Meyer 1994), and what are the major parties convolute is any policy from settings, implementation, monitoring and amenable for giving feedback. Institutional scheme offers a much nuanced lens for examining the organizational and institutional conditions that mediate these reforms, and how they do or do not cause their ways into classrooms. Namely, as represented in Figure 1, institutional theory draws attention to the broader cultural forces that help define the major parties involved in every policy (Patricia Burch, 2007). The major concern here is that the schools which refer to cultural diversity and awareness in their policies are not aware of it, and if they are aware there is no clear methods of implementations and evaluating. Each policy is affected by the surroundings (stakeholders), that may interfere directly or indirectly in setting the policy, schools in Dubai are facing a problem of cultural diversity, but what are the ascendants of going over this problem. Mentioning it in the policy is a part and solving is another part (words vs. action), and it is allowed for single school to take it own action in solving the pro blem without governmental interference. The policy is set by people in saddle who may interact by each involving others in implementing it, or force others to implement it. Those people in charge are responsible for any change in the policy.Figure 1How does the Policy view Culture?You can feel it within transactions of entering a school the behavior of the students, the attitude of the teachers, the care for the fleshly plant, the artifacts of discovery, encyclopedism, curiosity, community, expression and intellection that adorn the walls of the place, it is obvious that this is a place where younker people and teachers learn (Bill Schubart 2010). Good policy moldiness include the characteristics of secure and learning culture that is aware to students from diverse culture and give them fitted chances of learning, and increase their moxie of awareness towards each others. Good educational and learning culture is not driven by high property taxes, escalating school budgets, federal or state legislation, national testing, trustworthy buildings, nice classes or teachers unions. It is a modeled behavior set by leadership in the school, followed by a critical mass of the teaching body, all of whom are accountable for the culture and spread it by their own example and experience, their commitment to a community of learning, removing cultural diversities and barriers between students, their respect for one another and for their students (Schubart, 2008).What is the teachers role in implementing and adopting the policy?The diversity in classrooms presents unique opportunities and significant challenges for teaching. Students in UAE schools are with a wide variety of skills, abilities, and interests and with varying bunchentials in various areas. The wider the variation of the student population in each classroom, the more complex the teachers role becomes in, teaching, organizing, motivating and controlling students to ensure that each student has access to high-quality learning . The ultimate goal of any teacher is to pass off suitable approach to every student in the classroom, and try to set off him in a way to get the best from him. To reach that goal, teachers need assistance, training and well designed curriculum that must fit the call for of all students. Many schools have prepared their teachers to deal with diversity cases in their classrooms and leave it for the teacher to evaluate the situation and find the suitable solution to eliminate those diversities in order to get the best from students, and increase their sense of belonging. The policy at DIS doesnt mention any point related to the teacher role in the implementation of the policy, how it will be applied, what other parties to be involved (supervisors and parents), and the changes in curriculums to facilitate the implementation process. This implicit policy is considered too short to discuss every single aspect related to the problem and put pressure on teachers t o figure out personal solutions to deal with diversities in their classrooms. Those solutions are not standard they vary from teacher to teacher and from class to class. Good policy doesnt give margin for such variations it must have clear values, well articulated, the action required from this policy must be stated, and the methods of implementation must has to included in the policy.Where are the errors of implementation? (Implementation Gap)The policies in general are clear, written in a good professional language, and they are considered part of schools mission. The problems are not in the policy or its values only, but in the implementation of those policies, and the lack of discourse between various parts responsible for applying the policy. There could be implementation geological fault as a result of many factors, which could arise from the policy itself, the policy maker, or the environment in which the policy has been made. Implementation gap can arise from the policy it self when such a policy emanates from government rather than from the channelise groups. By this, it means that planning is top-down. And, by implication, the target beneficiaries are not allowed to contribute to the training of the policies that affect their lives, the target groups could be the teachers, students, and families (Makinde, 2005). Another cause of implementation gap is the failure of the policy makers to take into consideration the social, political, economic and administrative variables when analyzing for policy formulation, as I referred in the beginning of this paper there is gap between private and open schools polices concerning cultural policies, public schools that are only attained by nationals with unite curriculum all over the country, put less pressures on those schools to slang cultural diversities between their students.ConclusionSchools in UAE are considered melting pot of students from diverse cultural backgrounds that need a suitable polices to ac hieve equal educational opportunities that will help them to realize other cultures, and increase students nudeness to diverse cultures. Polices alone without the suitable instruments of implementation is considered useless, good implementation is considered find out success for any policy that put policy in action. Considering targeted group in setting the policy and involving them will increase its credibility and make the implantation easier to a certain extent. The policies must be clear, written in a good professional language, and they are considered part of schools mission. The problems are not in the policy or its values only, but in the formulation and implementation of those policies, and the lack of communication between various parts responsible for implementing the policy.

Friday, March 29, 2019

The Message Of Islam Theology

The Message Of Islam TheologyThe denomination Islam is derived from the root word salaama means peace, regard, purity, and submissions. Islam means abiding peace and obedience to the will of God. While opposite religions derive their get to from either a tribe, or a geographical bea or a founder, and Islam derives its name from the central ides of peace and submission to graven image. The followers of Islam c wholly them as Muslims or Musalmans. The word Hindoo is derived from the Sanskrit root word Sindhu and used by Persians, quaint Greeks and m both foreigners to de none the bulk who lived beyond the river Indus. The word Hinduism was invented by the British scholars in 1830s to denote the religious traditions of the native Indians to distinguish them from the other recognized religions.The message of Islam came to Muhammad for the first time through with(predicate) and through the angel Gabriel in 610 A.D., in a cave on Mount Hira. He kept on receiving the answers to his questions rest of his life and then he put all together in the book called book of account, which is the whole holy book of Islam. Quran is the only book in the world which cannot be ever translated. Hinduism considers Vedas as their teachings of God. The Vedas atomic number 18 the earliest unspeakable books of Hinduism. The end part of Upanishads, which constitutes the philosophical base of Hinduism cognise as Vedanta and contains the elements of monotheism and description of God as the supreme deity of universe. otherwise authorized sources of Hinduism atomic number 18 the Vedantas, the Puranas, the Bhagavad Gita, Tantric texts, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. As Aldous Huxley once said The Bhagavad-Gita is the closely systematic statement of spiritual evolution of endowing value to mankind. It is whizz of the close clear and comprehensive summaries of perennial philosophy ever revealed hence its digest value is subject not only to India but to all of humanity. The Islamics practices the following so called Five Pillars, which are mentioned in the Quran. Shahadah is withal cognise as the daily recitation of There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his courier (Quran). Salat is the rituals performed Five times a day dawn, at mid(prenominal)day, mid afternoon, sunset, and nighttime. Zakat which is the amount of money from a soulfulnesss total income donated to the poor and the needy. Sawn which is a gunpoint of fasting from dawn to dusk in the ninth month of muslim calendar. During this fasting muslims avoid all food, liquid, sex and tobacco. The final pillar is called hajj which is the pilgrimage to a sacred city of Mecca once in their lifetime. In Hinduism God is worshipped in m whatsoever different ways. The daily rituals are performed by an individual several times a day in which offerings are make to theologys, the elements, ancestors, animals and the humans. Many people also worship by visiting the temple everyday in the morn ing. Ramayana states that Wealth springs from dharma, from dharma comes happiness and one gets everything from dharma. Dharma is the essence of this world(Valmiki). Pooja is the popular form of worship in which demanders, chants, flowers, incense sticks, and others things are offered to gods, standardised said in Ramayana Whatever is ones food, the same food shall be offered to ones gods (Valmiki 2.103.30)Some Hindus also participate in satsangs or religious gatherings and perform the apprisal and modulation of the names of gods. Many Hindus practice fasting on specialised days of the weeks or on some festivals. Hindus also visits certain sacred places and temples for their own beings. A visit to Varanasi for a dip in gang up is considered very purifying and spiritual uplifting. There are many festivals noted by hindus out of which some are Diwali, Navaratri, Uttarayan, Ganesh Chaturthi and many more.Muslims deny don or worshiping any other god but Allah, who is their almig hty. He is not only the highest god of muslims, but also of all the people in the world. He is close to his loyal worshippers, whom he forgives their sins and blesses them with peace and happiness. They believe in free will and fate. According to muslims, Allah knows everything that happened, that has been happening and that will happen. He made humans responsible for their actions and choices. Anyone can convert to Islam easily. According to their traditions, anyone who follows Allah and takes Muhammad as his messenger becomes a muslim because Quran says that He who obeys the Messenger has indeed obeyed Allah (al-Nisa 4.80). Hinduism believes in existence of Brahman, the supreme captain of the universe who is eternal and stable. Three gods Brahma, Vishnu, and shiva are his triple main forms which are endowed with their work of creation, saving and destruction. According to Hindus, god can be worshipped in a same(p) many different ways. Many Hindus worship gods into their pers onal forms chosen by themselves. Hinduism believes in worshipping god as in the image or the statue or an object. They also believe in peaceful life lived with truth and honor, like once said in Mahabharata, Should even ones enemy arrive at the doorstep, he should be attended upon with respect. A tree does not read its cooling shade even from the one who has come to cut it (12.146.5). And Mahatma Gandhi also said I have no other wish in this world but to find light and joy and peace through Hinduism.Hinduism and Islam believe in the God as a supreme Lord of the universe, and as a creator of the whole system. Both religions believe that god has blessed humans with free will which make themselves responsible for their actions and choices. Allah is known by 99 names and the person who learns them all by core goes in the heaven. The Brahman of Hinduism also has many names and by chanting them a person can attain him. Both believe that god responds to all the people who worship him and blesses them. Hinduism believes in karma. Islam believes that good rewards for good plant and punishment for bad dreams. And Quran states Whoever does good deed, he shall be repaid ten-fold and whoever does evil, and he shall be repaid with evil (5.32). Both religions believe in non-violence and killing no human life. In Hinduism the path of truth is far more important than the belief or disbelief in god. Islam does not recognize any other religions other than they are specifically mentioned in Quran. We believe in that which has been revealed to us and revealed to you, and our God and your God is One, and to him do we submit (29.46). Muslims believe that they in something that is been revealed to them and believe that everybodys god is same. Both religions believe in praying gods and reciting their name and adopt for gods forgiveness.Muslims believe in praying only one god Allah, where as Hindus pray to one god but in different forms and incarnations. A person can be converted to Islam by praying to Allah or by taking Muhammad as their own messenger. Whereas in Hinduism a person becomes a Hindu by birth or by personal choice, without taking any messenger or following particular god permanently. Islam does not accept anyone between humans and god and in Hinduism there is a movement of non-Christian priest for the right directions. Islam does not have any high priest or gurus, whereas Hindus has like the highly respected gurus who people follow and anticipate for more knowledge from them. Islam does not believe in rebirth. Hindus believe qualifying in heaven or hell but they believe that the soul gets its freedom back through rebirth. Hinduism does not have the concept of messengers like Muslims have Muhammad as their messengers to god. Muslims laws are well versed in Quran as to punish the one who oppose the commands of Allah, and in Hinduism the laws are not imposed by the religious groups or people but are through the government. Islam does not accep ts god as his own creation where as Hindus accept that god is a supreme Lord of his creation and also as an individual as atman in every human-being as it is state in The Bhagwad Gita, The power of God is with you at all times through the activities of mind, senses, breathing, and emotions and is constantly doing all the work using you as a untainted instrument. Hinduism does not see any difference between god and other living beings. In Islam man can only be the true(p) follower of god and the others are made just to benefit man. In Islam there is no concept of Trinity. They believe that god is one and only. Hinduism has three highest forms of god known as Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva.The belief system in Hinduism and Islam has a great effect on the present day society. There is a great development and change in Hinduism over the centuries and has fete all over the world. Islam has also spread over the years and has mostly spread by trade and the people conquered by them. Hinduism and Islam are two study religions in modern world with a great amount of people following in the various parts of the world.Work CitedHuxley, Aldous. Quotes About Hinduism. (30 Quotes). Goodreads Inc., n.d. Web.04 Oct. 2012. .Gandhi, Mahatma. Hinduism Quotes. Refspace.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Oct. 2012..Muhammad, Zafr-Allah H. The Quran. London Curzon, 1978. PrintValmiki, , and Ramesh Menon. The Ramayana. New York North Point Press, 2003. Print.Pratapachandra, Raya, and Mohan G. Kisari. The Mahabharata. Calcutta Bharata Press, 1884.Print.Gupta, Prashant, M D. Gupta, and N K. Vikram. Bhagwad Gita. New Delhi Dreamland Books,1996. Print.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Prohibition :: essays research papers

forbidding was a period in which the sale, manufacture, or transport of alcoholic beverageic beverages became illegal. It started January 16, 1919 and continued to December 5, 193. Although it was formed to stop inebriation completely, it did not even come close. It created a large number of bootleggers who were open to supply the public with illegal alcohol. Many of these bootleggers became very rich and powerful through selling alcohol and using other methods. They started the practices of organized nuisance that are still used today. Thus, Prohibition led to the rapid gain of organized crime.The introduction of prohibition in 1919 created numerous opinions and issues in American society. Prohibition has been a long-standing issue in America, with groups promoting it since the late eighteenth century. The work grew tremendously during the nineteenth century. When the United States entered World War 1 in 1914, there was a shortage of grain due to the long demands to tend th e soldiers. Since grain is one of the major components in alcohol, the temperance movement right off had the war to fuel their fight. Thus, the war played a large voice in the introduction of Prohibition. During the net five years many states enacted their receive prohibition laws, and at long last, on December 16,1919, Amendment 18 went into effect. It states that, the manufacture, sale, or transportation of lift up liquors. For beverage purpose is hereby prohibited.(Constitution)The public reaction to the introduction of Prohibition was largely mixed. The temperance organizations were rejoiced. Over a century of work had finally paid off for them. The rest of the country, however, was less than pleased. Many saw it as a violation of their freedom, and others wanted to keep drinking. It did no take a long time before people began to protest.The public demand for alcohol led to a soaring business for bootleggers. When prohibition began, people immediately wanted a way to drink . Therefore, the profitable bootlegging business was born. forward Prohibition gangs existed, but had little influence. Now, they had gained tremendous power almost overnight. sell was easy some gangs even paid hundreds of poor immigrants to maintain stills in their apartments. Common citizens, once law abiding, now became criminals by making their have alcohol. However, this forced risks for those who made their own. The less fortunate Americans consumed homemade alcoholic beverages that were sometimes made with wood alcohol. In return, many died due to alcohol poisoning.

Mystery and Suspense in Heart of Darkness :: Heart Darkness essays

Mystery and Suspense in Heart of Darkness It seems like everywhere there is something in life that seems to be left behind. In the books I read more or less mystery or suspense, this always seems to be the case in such. The Heart of Darkness draws me into such depths of suspense and unappreciated that seem to associate with my life. This whole book is full of mysteries. Marlow has a gist that is full of mystery when he is stuck in Africa, and looking for a adult male named Kurtz. Marlow is waiting, he learns about where the place is at, what could be coming ahead. Maybe he was just acquiring some ideas of what was ahead, or who he would be functional with. Why is all this senselessness happening around him? Marlow is enthralled with mystery. You wouldnt hypothesise that somebody would be simply crazy to go and take a trip down the Congo river. He has heard some aspects about the place, and the way it seems to suck the visitors in. All the people getting diseases. One would go insane there, so why? Why would he want to go do this? Again, its full of mystery, and that view ass an interesting book. Kurtz, with this person, I can not sway how much mystery applies to him and his personality. People havent heard from him for quite a broad time, because he is up the river from the station where Marlow is at. People are wanting the boss, and theyre getting restless. Is Kurtz, sick? Could one of these people get a new forwarding in their job? The people dont want Marlow to go explore up the river a ways and kind Kurtz, suppling him with help that he might need. And yet, Marlow unavoidably Kurtz. Yet, there is the mystery of the Congo river. It has a way with the people that cut into it and try to explore its orgins. It seems to drag you in, and not let you go. All of this, because they were searching and brave. But not all brave men will make it through this jungle that the Congo river lays on.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

Analysis of Movie Moulin Rouge Essay -- Film Cinema Baz Luhrmann Paper

Analysis of Movie Moulin paint In this turn out I will be analyzing in depth four scenes from Baz Luhrmanns critically acclaimed Moulin Rouge that was released in 2000. I will be analyzing the opening sequence, the sequence in the Moulin Rouge itself, the two dancing sequences Like a Virgin and Tango Roxanne and the final scenes of the film. Throughout this essay I will be commenting on the filming techniques that Luhrmann uses and what affects these have on the audience, also I will be analyzing how the film is similar and unlike to typical Hollywood Musicals. There atomic number 18 many elements of film musical comedys, which are present in typical Hollywood, and Broadway musicals. For example the synchronized dancing backside be seen in many musicals such as Seven Brides for Seven Brothers and Cabaret. The musical films are a development from the dance halls and silent movies and became very ordinary in the 1930s. This popularity remained until the television boom in the 70s and 80s, and also due to the concomitant that more realistic films were cosmos released and people saw the films as fantastic and fantastical. Busby Berkley was a film director and choreographer who built a story as dance director of numerous Broadway shows and early musical films in the beginning directing the Warner Brothers backstage saga Forty-Second Street (1933). Berkley perfected the still overbold technique of synchronizing the filmed image to a pre-recorded soundtrack. As a result, microphones were not needed during musical sequences, making fluid camera doing and intricate editing possible. Berkley set cameras on custom built booms and budget items views of geometrically arran... ... of the dancing scenes the dancers are synchronized also the men in the Moulin Rouge check the same. The fact that the baddy of the film is portrayed as being English is similar. The Moulin Rouge is all about putting on a show wh ich is what musicals are all about, especially Broadway musical. There is a wide element of romance throughout the film. The film on the other throw is different to typical musicals as there isnt a happy ending. veritable(prenominal) musicals end with, for example, the two main pillowcases getting married or driving off into the sunset, however Moulin Rouge ends with the death of the main female character and love interest, Satine. The sepia is different to typical musicals. The prostitutes in the Moulin Rouge itself wear different clothing, which isnt seen in musicals, which adds to the films diversity.

longterm nuclear effects :: essays research papers

When a atomic gun is detonated the nada of the dart is transferred to the meet surrounds in troika forms onrush, caloric radiation, and atomic radiation. When a atomic apparatus is detonated the energy of the blast is transferred to the surrounding environs in trine forms blast, caloric radiation, and nuclear radiation. When a nuclear weapon is detonated the energy of the blast is transferred to the surrounding environment in three forms blast, thermal radiation, and nuclear radiation. When a nuclear weapon is detonated the energy of the blast is transferred to the surrounding environment in three forms blast, thermal radiation, and nuclear radiation. When a nuclear weapon is detonated the energy of the blast is transferred to the surrounding environment in three forms blast, thermal radiation, and nuclear radiation. When a nuclear weapon is detonated the energy of the blast is transferred to the surrounding environment in three forms blast, thermal radiation, and nuc lear radiation. When a nuclear weapon is detonated the energy of the blast is transferred to the surrounding environment in three forms blast, thermal radiation, and nuclear radiation. When a nuclear weapon is detonated the energy of the blast is transferred to the surrounding environment in three forms blast, thermal radiation, and nuclear radiation. When a nuclear weapon is detonated the energy of the blast is transferred to the surrounding environment in three forms blast, thermal radiation, and nuclear radiation. When a nuclear weapon is detonated the energy of the blast is transferred to the surrounding environment in three forms blast, thermal radiation, and nuclear radiation. When a nuclear weapon is detonated the energy of the blast is transferred to the surrounding environment in three forms blast, thermal radiation, and nuclear radiation. When a nuclear weapon is detonated the energy of the blast is transferred to the surrounding environment in three forms blast, thermal r adiation, and nuclear radiation.

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Survival and Love in Charles Frazier’s Cold Mountain Essay examples --

Survival and Love in Charles Fraziers Cold crapperI lieIn va loafert or in pensive mood,They scintillate upon that inward eyeWhich is the bliss of solitudeAnd then my heart with cheer fills,And dances with the daffodils. (ll. 19-24) Wordsworths famous and simple poem, I wandered lonely as a cloud, expresses the romantic Ages appreciation for the beauty and truth that can be found in a setting as median(a) as a field of daffodils. With this final stanza, Wordsworth writes of the minds capacity to carry those memories of natures beauty into any setting, whether city or country. His belief in the power of the imagination and the effect it can pack on nature, and vice a versa, is evident in most of his work. This handsome portion of his writing helps to illuminate a major theme of the Romantic poets, and can even be seen in contemporary writings of today. single such work is Cold hole by Charles Frazier. This story follows deuce characters, Inman and Ada, who barely know e ach other and are forced isolated by the Civil War. As Ada waits in North Carolina Appalachia for Inman to knuckle under home from three years of battle, Inman decides to abandon the war effort and voyage across the Southern states to reach his beloved. Although this may seem like a simple love story, the changes each lover goes through in their expedition of survival and love shows the romantic ideals of the beauty of nature and appreciation for the toast time and reality. Frazier uses several themes prominent in the Romantic Age, significantly by the poets Wordsworth, Keats, and Coleridge, in order to show the power of the human imagination in extraordinary situations and everyday living as well. Inman and Ada each name through their diffe... ...cal Tradition. 11 (2004) 232-243.Edgecombe, Rodney Stenning. Wordsworths I wandered lonely as a cloud. ANQ. 16 (2003) 23-27.Frazier, Charles. Cold Mountain. New York Vintage, 1998.Gifford, Terry. Terrain, Character and Text Is Cold Mountain by Charles Frazier a Post- Pastoral Novel? Mississippi Quarterly. 25 (2001)87-96).Heddendorf, David. end the Distance to Cold Mountain. Southern Review. 36 (2000) 188-9.Inscoe, John C. Cold Mountain Appalachian Odysseus. Appalachian Journal. 25 (1998) 330-337.Schoemaker, Jacqueline. Travel, Homecoming and Wavering Minds in melodic Ballads and other Poems. A Natural Delineation of Human Passions The Historic Moment of melodic Ballads. Amsterdam Rodopi, 2004.Wordsworth, William. The Prelude Book Fifth. Abrams 341-2.- - - I wandered lonely as a cloud. Abrams 254-5.

My Friend, Chris Essay -- essays research papers

there are m each nation in this being who hold great write ups. There are coldaway fewer people who posess great character. A reputation is built in just moments, and reflects what you do in front of people. Character, on the other hand, is built over years, and is reflected in what is unseen by others. Of on the whole of my booster rockets, whiz exemplifies great character more than any of the others. His name is Chris.Chris stands a little over 6 feet tall with thick, dirty blonde hair. His lancinate blue eyes change color in the sunlight. He is real light complected, with a small amount of facial hair on the base of his chin. His long sideburns grow down the length of his ear. He is one of those adventurous guys who does things that I would never dream of doing. Realizing that life is short, his ambition is to exonerate the most out of life that he possibly can. Chris has influenced me more than any other person on the campus. He did this by making me intend in who I really am. Always remember that life is what you be of it. You have the chance to become whatever you desire its a gift that divinity fudge gives you, he told me once. Some people spend their lives blaming others for their problems. Its far better to spend time and energy searching for answers -- instead of pointing fingers. wizard of his great attributes is shown in the fact that he tries to cheer people up and make them laugh while they are experiencing great emotional separate out or pain. He is known to play some great concrete jokes on friends just to brighten their day. He once called a friend who was going through some personal problems and told him that he was being investigated by the Humane Society for animal cruelty. Chris even involved many of his lumberjack workers in the joke. Unfortunately, they forgot to tell the man that they were joking Later that night, he remembered to condone to the man or so the joke. Fearing that his friend would be upset, he shee pishly told him about his little endeavor. The man, instead of being angry, showed great relief. He even thanked Chris for what he did. The man said that it do him realize how unimportant his problems really were. I guess that I did go a little too far with that one, He said. But in the end, it all sort of worked out for the undecomposed -- thank beau ideal While he has an incredible sense of humor, ... ...s of this world. This world is not his home, but a place where he can be a servant to those around him. Even during difficult times, he considers his flunk a skill. The Bible says that Gods grace is sufficient for us, because his strength is made perfect in weakness, he explained. I believe that God comes through for us when we cant come through for ourselves. It gives God a chance to demonstrate the power of his great love. Because of such displays of original christian character, Chris has influenced me throughout my freshman year of college more than anyone else. He has made me learn that anyone can turn their life around -- if they would only depose on Jesus Christ and surrender their go out to him. Chris believes that with all of his heart. every once and a while, you meet one of those special people that you will remember throughout your entire life. These type of people are pictorial born leaders. They are human bodyers, not of just brick and mortar, but of the human heart. They build you up when others tear you down. Just when you feel like giving up on society, someone does something that shows that there are still great people out there. Chris is one of those people.

Monday, March 25, 2019

Flannery OConnor and William Faulkners Characters and Morality Essay

Flannery OConnor and William Faulkners Characters and MoralityFlannery OConnor and William Faulkner refuse to surrender to the lure of writing fanciful stories where the hero defeats the villain and everyone lives happily ever after. Instead, these both writers reveal realistic portrayals of death and the downfall of man. Remarkably, OConnor and Faulkners most(prenominal) emotionally degraded characters fail to believe that an omnipotent deity controls their fate. This precept directly correlates to the characters inability to follow a strict set of ethics or value human life. On the other hand, one top executive expect Faulkner and OConnors Christian characters to starkly contrast the fetid heathens who deny the existence of God. However, these characters struggle to follow their own standards of morals. The southern grow places much value on community, courtesy, and the standard of morality the Bible. But at a lower place this facade of civility lie slandero us gossip, impure motives, and hidden iniquity. Faulkners character, Cora Tull, is a prime example of this. Though she openly admits that she has no right field to pass judgment on Addie Bundren because, It is the Lords place to judge, Cora Tull afterwards hypocritically states, I realized out of the vanity of her heart she (Addie) had utter sacrilege. Coras desire for Addies repentance blinds her from seeing her own sin. On the other hand, Mrs. Turpin, a character in OConnors Revelation, struggles with this alike(p) sin but in a different manner. Mrs. Turpin appears to politely bump strangers with kindness but, alas, her kindness is corrupted. Though Mrs. Turpins sincere smiles and courteous half-size talk make her appear to truly care about others near h... ... refuse to believe in God. In fact, the Christians could probably be condemned to a greater extent readily because they have a standard of morality and choose non to abide by it. On the other hand, when a pe rson knows that at that place are no consequences he acts accordingly. For instance, the Misfit kills people and thinks nothing of it because he just now lives for the moment without thinking through his iniquity. Conversely, Whitfield recognizes his wrong doing but simply lowers his standards of morality thereby causing only more grief.Works CitedFaulkner, William. As I Lay Dying. New York Vintage Books, 1990.OConnor, Flannery. Collected Works Stories and periodical Prose Revelation. New York Penguin, 1988. 285-327.---. Collected Works Stories and Occasional Prose A Good human being is Hard to Find. New York Penguin, 1988. 328-340.

Equal Rights for All Essay -- Gay Marriage Homosexuality Essays

Equal Rights for All zippy marriage has al slipway been a subject of great controversy. Andrew Sullivan addresses this set off in his persuasive downk entitled Let Gays Marry. Sullivans essay appeared in Newsweek in June of 1996. Through his problem/solution structure of this essay, Sullivan uses rhetorical appeals to distort and persuade the sense of hearing to accept gay marriage as a natural part of life. Sullivan, an editor of The New Republic, similarly wrote Virtually commonplace An Argument about Homosexuality (26). Andrew Sullivan, who is openly gay himself, is a religious Catholic who has spent his life researching subjects involving the gay community. His articles are simply ways for him to show his feelings to the general public. His audience for Let Gays Marry is the general public, alone could be more specifically written for gays who are too scared to stand up for the rights for gays to marry. He may have written this essay to inform the public how gays feel about the issue of marriage, but also to encourage gays to stand up for their rights as Americans. Let Gays Marry is organise in a problem/solution format. Sullivan takes the issue of gays not cosmos able to legally marry and offers a solution to the people of America. He addresses the issue that gays are not treated the same as new(prenominal) Americans in the issue of marriage and proposes that same-sex marriages become legal in society to solve this problem (26). Sullivan also knows that Americans believe that having same sex marriages would be against religious values (26). He then explains that gays dont necessitate to change anyone elses beliefs, but simply want to live happily like other married couples in the United States (26). The in the end issue addres... ...rica changed (26). Marriage has come a long way within the last century and should continue to modernize along with the people of America. Andrew Sullivan uses many strategies to analyze to fully inform his audience of the rights of the gay community. Sullivan uses rhetorical appeals to persuade his audience to see his view of same-sex marriages. Sullivan successfully shows his side of the argument and confronts faults that others may see with his views. Using his problem/solution format, Sullivan resolves the problems that many Americans assume would accompany the legitimation of same-sex marriages. Through his essay, Sullivan hopes to show to the general public that legalizing gay marriage is a natural step that must be taken in rove to support the growth of America. Works CitedSullivan, Andrew. Let Gays Marry. Newsweek 3 June 1996 26.

Sunday, March 24, 2019

The Half-Brothers by Elizabeth Gaskell Essay -- Papers

The Half-Brothers by Elizabeth Gaskell This trading floor, The Half-Brothers, written by Elizabeth Gaskell is set in 19th century Cumberland. This composition is based on some of things that happened in Mrs Gaskells life much(prenominal) as her losing her children. The half brothers are Gregory and his schoolgirlisher brother whose name we never move up out. Their produce loses her first husband and she re-marries William Preston. Their mother, Helen, dies in childbirth leaving Gregory to be brought up by his stepfather. Even though he had been badly tough by him, Gregory shows throughout that he is a true Christian. Mrs Gaskell in this story prepares Helen into a genuinely sympathetic character. The very first sentence My mother was twice married is made to make us feel sympathy for her because we pass that something bad must have happened in her first marriage alone we dont know what it is until later on in the paragraph. Helen is also made a sympathetic character by Mrs Gaskell listing a series of ugly events that happened to Helen. Saying how young she is She was barely seventeen makes us feel sympathetic for Helen wise to(p) that she is young and helpless. We also begin to conceive of from this that she is too young to be married. The grief occurs when she loses her husband and she is left to look after a young child on her own. She was only just able to walk. We begin to think things are getting better for her when her sister comes to help her. They had a plan. They plan how to make every penny they could. Everything goes wrong. The farm on her hands for foursome years or more by the lease. We feel sympathy for her acute that she has too much to cope with on h... ...to cope with in such a short space of time. Another contrived point is solely the things that happened to Helen, such as her losing most of her family and becoming helpless. Sentimentality is formed from William Prest ons last request. We know that he really is deeply sorry for the way he treated Gregory. The description of Gregorys body when he dies is very easy to make a picture in your head because it is described so detailed. I dont think the story is over-emotional or exaggerated. It is written very well and the schmaltzy parts of the story are brought out and expressed well. Sentimental actor that something is dear to you and that it means something to you. The things that happen to Helen in the story are very closely related to things that happened in Mrs Gaskells life and therefore are sentimental to her.