Monday, December 30, 2019

Exploring the Formation of “Perspective Fixedness” Through...

Exploring the Formation of â€Å"Perspective Fixedness† Through Established Theories The ability to take different and varying perspectives in any given situation is a strength and often seen as an indicator of intelligence or at least, competence. This fluidity of perspective is a prominent part of many entrance tests for gifted children in schools (McGlonn-Nelson, 2005). In everyday cultural interactions, however, the quality does not seem to be endorsed or encouraged and in looking at the System Justification Theory, one can see why. Standardized thinking preserves the status quo and the need for structure and established systems bring about the mindset (Liviatan Jost, 2011). In accepting, defending and bolstering the societal status quo,†¦show more content†¦The danger in engaging in perspective fixedness, however, comes in applying inaccurate beliefs to decision-making. Due to this potential for harm, it is important to determine how far perspective fixedness ef fects permeate interpersonal thoughts, treatments, and decisions. The body of research viewing functional fixedness as a cultural issue rather than just a cognitive one is small. Yet, there is plenty of evidence from budding topics that suggest that the lack of fluidity in perspective in regards to function can easily translate to fixedness in interpersonal relationships in today’s multicultural world. A well-known and evidenced piece of the support is the establishment of stereotypes. Research has indicated that people who perceive a system to be unfair desire more structure and tend to engage in stereotyping more (Stapel Noordewier, 2011). This piece of research, then, might explain why victims of stereotyping uphold and reinforce the negative stereotype themselves. Indeed, the research of Beyer (1999) and Mickes and his associates (2012) suggests that the level of engagement in using stereotypes to find structure is maintained even within the targeted group, and perceived gender differences are a prime example. There are a number of deeply-rooted stereotypes associated particularly with gender differences. Ability for humor and educational prowess are just

Saturday, December 21, 2019

The Relationship Between Madness And Creativity, By...

Whether it is a natural talent or an acquired skill; writing allows artists to bring their creative expression to life. Interestingly enough, there is a widespread belief that some writers develop their creativity and knack for writing through suffering from a mental illness. This belief stems from past research based on the relationship between madness and creativity, especially in the writing field. Katherine M. Thomas and Marshall Duke wrote the article, Depressed writing: Cognitive distortions in the works of depressed and non-depressed poets and writers. Their article focuses on digging deeper into the relationship between madness and writing by making an in- depth analysis of writing samples from depressed writers versus the writing samples of those who weren’t. Duke and Thomas found that there is a need for analyzing works of writing because it may provide understanding in the relationship, which will lead to an understanding of depression and mental illness. Due to thi s widely known relationship, some may look at mental illness in a positive light. This relationship may cause people to look at the distortions as simply art; thus, diminishing the severity of mental illness. When looking at psychological distortions from an artistic perspective, this may remove the humanity of the writer; therefore; it is important to analyze and seriously look for the signs of cognitive distortions because it may help us understand and possibly distinguish the relationship between

Friday, December 13, 2019

The Role of Literature in Cultural and Society Development Free Essays

Jibran Khalil Jibran once said, â€Å"All our words are but crumbs that fall down from the feast of the mind. † It is in everyone, it’s locked away, hidden and for the gifted, it comes out to give us the very languages we are using today. Literature, like music and film and theatre, is an art. We will write a custom essay sample on The Role of Literature in Cultural and Society Development or any similar topic only for you Order Now As a matter of fact the purest form of art. Life, for many if not all, in scales that vary is pretty much the same journey measured by experiences, fortune, luck and love. We cannot all express them in a poetic or artistic manner but we all experience them nonetheless. Most of us go through this wicked and unmerciful thing called life without ever being able to express those fortunate moments and hardships to others and more importantly to ourselves. We have reached an age where generations no longer pay mind to literature in a direct and hands on way. The new generation, including myself, doesn’t explore the poet within, as cliche as this may sound. Speeches from our presidents and world leaders don’t sound like they were fabricated from something real. They were written by politicians and campaign specialists whose aim is to shock and awe, but sadly with facts and numbers, not with the humane and sentimental approach for which speeches and words were meant. The role of literature in society is to help enhance our way of thinking and perceiving our surroundings. It heightens our level of expression and speaking. You simply become that much more articulate and creative! Almost every book or novel that we read results in a push to our perception of life. In Milton Albrecht’s â€Å"The Relationship of Literature and Society†, he adequately states that literature â€Å"reflects† society; its supposed converse is that literature influences or â€Å"shapes† society. On a daily basis we come across some kind of literary event. Something you could write a poem about, maybe even a book. More often than not they are overlooked, but it’s the creative minds that will always seize these moments and grant us the literature that will always help us relate. We live in a world where we desperately need a lifeline or a beacon that will always remind us that we are not robots or corporate machines. We live in a world where people want to escape their daily responsibilities and commitments to something more heartfelt. We live in a world where we absolutely and undeniably need literature! While it is physically written in words, these words come alive in the imagination of the mind, and its ability to comprehend the complexity or simplicity of the text. Literature enables people to see through the lenses of others, and sometimes even inanimate objects; therefore, it becomes a looking glass into the world as others view it. Like Thomas Edison came up with electricity, like Alexander Graham Bell gave us the telephone and like Mark Zuckerberg invented FACEBOOK, literature perhaps started with man discovering his ability to create. When this happened he realized that he could not only express his emotions in writing but in the process deliver messages of import to society carefully hidden in beautiful and crafted words. He decided that he could play with words to entertain and captivate people who would read them. In the olden days distance was of course a problem and so maintaining a history of world literature was impossible. People in different parts of the world, using different languages and writing in different periods of time tackled literature differently. This has left us with books and creations that enrich our society and our heritage as a race. Even the most voracious reader can never hope to read all the books out there. There must be a reason for that, shouldn’t there? I mean many customs and cultures have withered over the centuries, many habits and arts have withdrawn into the abyss. But not literature! Literature inspires whole nations to rebel and change. This is the power of literature. It shapes, it moulds and in the process entertains. It helps us learn about human nature in all its foibles and greatness; it lets us learn about the human past and our own pasts, and about other cultures. When we discover literature we can travel to any place at any time, even to the future, and see how others view the same world. It helps people get an in-depth view of life in someone else’s shoes, whether it’s the writer’s or someone else’s, may it be fiction or based on real life experiences. Whatever the case may be, reading a book, for instance, can put you in a totally different world, so foreign to you that you are bound to learn something from. Reading, in my opinion, affects you on a much more personal level than watching a movie, therefore, after reading a book or any other piece of literature, the reader gains something which in turn he or she will inevitably bring into society whether it is a point-of-view, a new outlook or simply added knowledge or information. That person will carry what he/she learned on with them for years to come or probably forever and will most likely pass it on to other people and they in time will also pass n that newly acquired â€Å"crumb† of knowledge, causing a chain reaction of knowledge, if you will. After all, knowledge is one of the very few things that can never be taken away from you, and once anything is learned it inexorably triggers a change in that person, small or big, good or bad, that change will unavoidably occur and be brought with that person into society affecting how he or she would choose to converse with and/or treat others, how they would react to and handle cert ain situations and possibly the basis of their decision-making. All of these things, in one way or another will most definitely have an impact on society as a whole and on its individual units. Literature and writing, though obviously connected, are not synonymous. Several pieces of literature that left a mark on our culture and society were passed down through oral tradition before they were ever fixed in written form. Take Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey that was dated all the way back to the late Bronze Age and handed down through different cultures by oral tradition before ever taking a written form. Regardless of the form that literature may take, whether it’s in form of a novel or poem, movie or music, or just a simple oral form, it is undeniable that it bares several advantages for the person that actually takes the time to understand and appreciate it and eventually share it with others. You know? I may not be the most suitable person to be giving this speech or preaching about the importance of literature. I may not have experienced the true hardships and joys of life. But one thing I believe is that no matter when I express this importance, be it today or in 50 years after life has taken its toll on me, it will always be true. Novels, books, words and literature are here to forever and always shake the very foundation of our world. To shake us, rattle us in hopes that those crumbs that Jibran spoke of would fall into a page and form future cultures and societies to come. People nowadays, including myself sometimes, can be so apathetic and indifferent to our society and its people and oblivious to the fact that literature and education in general is a tool that can change that apathy and help shape us to become more well-rounded individuals that are somewhat free of the ignorance that can so easily destroy us without us even knowing it. The sad but apparent truth is that people these days don’t give reading and literature their just significance, most people probably never will, maybe it’s because of all the available distractions such as social networking and he like. The only solution for this problem is for previous generations to enlighten this generation on the importance of literature and how it can affect our society instead of constantly criticizing it. In the end, the people that criticize our generation forget who raised it, but that’s a different issue for a different time. I cannot be emphatic enough when stressing the importance of literature and reading and the rewards they so inconspicuously possess. After all, the famous author Mark Twain once said, â€Å"The man who does not read books has no advantage over the man that cannot read them. † How to cite The Role of Literature in Cultural and Society Development, Essays

Thursday, December 5, 2019

Personality Development Origins of Ones Personality - Free Sample

Question: Discuss about thePersonality Development for Origins of Ones Personality. Answer: Introduction: Many theories have been proposed by various psychologists on understanding the origins of ones personality. One of the highly authoritative theories is based on the work of a famous neurologist from Australia Sigmund Freud. He was the first to propose the psychoanalysis theory. Collectively, all these personality theories are called psychodynamic theories. Despite the fact that there are a various number of psychodynamic theories that exist the main emphasis of all the theories are given on the unconscious desires and motives and the significance of childhood events or experiences in developing and shaping the personality of an individual (Lyon, 2013). Leonardo DiCaprio is a famous American actor, as well as, a film producer. Leonardo Dicaprio began his career in the early 1990s by performing in the television commercials. After that, he played recurring roles in various television series and films (Editors, 2016). He is the man who has faced so many ups and downs both in personal and professional life. While various celebrities chose their career of acting due to their pleasure seeking behavior and hence, dominated by id, Leonardos career choice was due to the domination of ego based on his early childhood events and experiences. Hence, the main purpose of this research report is an investigation of the personality of Leonardo Decaprio in terms of psychodynamics and humanistic conception of personality. Sigmund Freud formulated the Psychodynamic theory that provided an elaborate description of various levels of awareness, which are conscious, preconscious, as well as, unconscious. This theory also explained that how the feelings and thoughts of a person can impact his/her actions. According to a psychodynamic theory proposed by Freud, human personality consists of three distinct parts, which are the id, the ego, and the superego. The id is the source of instinctual energy, which operates on the principle of self-pleasure. The ego tends to allow instinctual satisfaction by regulating the needs of the id based on the reality principle. While the super-ego tends to regulate the satisfaction of the instinctual demands as per the social convention and can be called as the moral arm in the societal status. The id, ego, and the superego performed at conscious, preconscious, and unconscious state respectively. Freud also stated that the personality of the individual is formed during his/her early five years of the persons life (Lyon, 2013). Leonardo Dicaprio who is now a famous Hollywood actor once leads a very unglamorous life. His childhood was spent in an unglamorous and poor world. Once in an interview, Leonardo Dicaprio said: I grew up very poor and I got to see the other side of the spectrum. Leonardo had spent his childhood in the slum area of Los Angles where prostitution, violence, and crime was present on his streets. He had seen people smoking crack and shooting heroin, and his whole childhood was spent looking at these. He states that he never tried the drug in his life, though Hollywood parties are the main source of temptation for drug use. In this case, Leonardo Dicaprios ego has overpowered his id. His ego resisted him to try drugs at the Hollywood parties where it is the main source of temptation. His ego was driven by the incidences he had witnessed during his childhood as in his interview he said that Never done it, that's because I saw this stuff literally every day when I was 3 or 4 years old. Hence , his early childhood experiences have made him resistance towards the temptation of the drugs and his personality is ego driven (Editors, 2016). Leonardos parents got divorced when he was a toddler. This had a huge impact on his personality development as after his parents divorce, he used to pass his time in Echo park, which was a drug-dominated, poor, and dirty place. Leo during his early childhood was used to be a misbehave and naughty child and was nearly thrown out from the educational program of Romper Room he took at the age of 3 years. Moreover, when he first performed in a children's TV show and appeared for the first time on screen in a Romper Room show he was fired for his disruptive nature (Editors, 2016). As Leos parents got divorced when he was a baby, it had a negative impact on his anal stage and leads to the development of anal-expulsive personality, which leads to the development of Leos disruptive and misbehaved personality. Though fantastic and outstanding roles have been played by Leonardo, but it took 23 years to win an Oscar award for his marvelous work. Every time Leo used to be nominated for the Oscar awards but never achieved it for years and years. But still, Leo never allowed his failure to rule his career. He used ego employed defense mechanisms. Freuds defense theory states that to deal with problems and conflicts in ones life, the ego plays a vital role in mediating a range of various defense mechanisms. (Lyon, 2013) Leo used his ego as a defense mechanism to overcome the failure to win Oscar award for years. Losing an Oscar was not a hindrance for Leo to continue living his highly meaningful and successful life. He once said, You can either be a vain movie star, or you can try to shed some light on different aspects of the human condition. He became an environmental activist and brought public awareness to humanitarian and environmental concerns. Leos ego was aware of a greater need and mad e him realize that what he actually had and what he can do for the environment, which helped him cutting down his disappointments size (Editors, 2016). The psychodynamic theory based on the influence of events and experiences of childhood on ones personality suits the personality of Leonardo Decaprio. However, there is certain criticism linked to this approach. The one primary criticism linked to Freuds development theory is the over-emphasis of the theory on the sexuality of an individual. Moreover, as this theory states that the development of the personality of an individual is driven by the events and experiences he had during his childhood, it failed to analyze the changes in the personality of the individual during his adulthood, which can be acquired by observational learning and conditioning during his upcoming stages of life (Bornstein, 2010). Humanistic theory of personality emphasizes that a persons inherent drive is towards his/her creativity and self-actualization. According to Rogers Humanistic theory, the one basic goal of an organism is self-actualization. He emphasized that the key indicator of an individual towards reaching self-actualization is his/her experiences he/she had during their childhood. According to Roger, self-concept is one of the most vital feature of ones personality, and it consists of all the feelings, thoughts, and beliefs individuals have about them. He believed that everyone is aware of their self-concepts (Kirschenbaum, 2012).While, Kellys humanistic theory is focused on the basis of Fundamental Postulate that states that the way in which an individual anticipates events or things psychological channelizes the process of an individual (Gruber, 2012). The childhood experiences of Leo motivated him to become an actor. Leos rough upbringing led to the path of self-actualization as it was the ev ent that led him towards his career of choice. Leos during one of his interview said that he once got beat up as he went to private elementary school being a student of the public school. He used to have a thinking that everyone in the private elementary school lived harmoniously with each other. This incidence was the motivational event that happened to him as he told his mother after this incidence that he wants to be an actor because he wants to get out of the public school. Hence, the life of students in the private school and an urge to get out of the public school system led him to the path of self-actualization (Editors, 2016). The humanistic approach emphasizes on individuals responsibility and choice and suits to explain the decision of Leo of becoming an actor. However, there are certain drawbacks to this approach of personality. The primary criticism faced by this approach is that this theory fails to define the impact of social interaction, personality continuity, or presence of deviance. Moreover, this theory focuses on the individuals capability of seeking positive goals, it fails to define the presence of evil in the society or deviance within normal personalities. Hence, it lacks the empirical evidence, as well as, does not have enough falsifiability (Gruber, 2012). Personality is the complicated organization of behaviors, cognitions, and affects that provides direction, as well as, pattern to the individuals life. It involves both the structures, as well as, processes, which reflects the nature and nurture of an individual. Moreover, the development of the personality includes the impact of past of an individual that includes the memories of an individual and its role towards the construction of the individuals present and future. While Freuds personality theory is based on the fact that an individual personality is a result of childhood experiences and events and is unchangeable (Lyon, 2013). Rogers humanistic theory is based on the actualizing tendency of an individual that enables the person to grow and realize their potentials. The humanistic approach is focused on suggesting that the commitment to change is a result of self-concept and self-actualization tendency of an individual. Though both the theories are focused on different approache s but both emphasize the role of childhood experiences in the development of the personality (Gruber, 2012). References Bornstein, R. (2010). Psychoanalytic theory as a unifying framework for 21st century personality assessment.Psychoanalytic Psychology, 27(2), pp.133-152. Editors, B. (2016).Leonardo DiCaprio Biography. [online] Biography.com. Available at: https://www.biography.com/people/leonardo-dicaprio-9273992 [Accessed 30 Aug. 2016]. Gruber, C. (2012). Humanistic Cognitive Behavioral Theory, a Value-Added Approach to Teaching Theories of Personality.Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46, pp.252-259. Kirschenbaum, H. (2012). What is person-centered? A posthumous conversation with Carl Rogers on the development of the person-centered approach.Person-Centered Experiential Psychotherapies, 11(1), pp.14-30. Lyon, C. (2013). A brief introduction to psychoanalytic theory.Psychodynamic Practice, 19(4), pp.431-435. Robertson, R. (2003). Freud's Theory and its Use in Literary and Cultural Studies: An Introduction (review).American Imago, 60(2), pp.246-252.