Sunday, September 22, 2019

Microbiology Study Guide Chapter Essay Example for Free

Microbiology Study Guide Chapter Essay Food Production 1. Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, 2. Saccharomyces cerevisiae B. Oxygen production C. Nitrogen Fixation D. Decomposition E. Bioremediation F. Antibiotics G. Biotechnology and research H. Normal flora I. Pathogens (malaria parasite, E. coli, Salmonella, Clostridium) IV. The Origin of Microorganisms A. Spontaneous Generation revisited 1. Francesco Redi 2. Lazzaro Spallazani 3. Louis Pasteur 4. John Tyndall B. If not Spontaneous Generation, then what? 1. Ferdinand Cohn 2. Robert Koch Chapter 3: Microscopy Staining I. What can we see with a microscope? A. Micrometer B. Nanometer II. History of Microscopy A. Robert Hooke B. Anton van Leeuwenhoek III. Principles of Microscopy A. Total Magnification B. Resolution/Resolving power 1. Wavelength 2. Numerical aperture C. Refraction/Refractive index D. Contrast IV. Light Microscope /Bright field Microscope A. Parts and functions 1. Oculars 2. Objectives/Revolving nosepiece 3. Stage 4. Condenser Iris diaphragm 5. Adjustment knobs- Course, fine, condenser and stage B. Principles of electron microscopy (transmission and scanning electron microscopes). V. Staining Techniques A. Smear Preparation B. Types of dyes – basic, acidic C. Types of Staining Procedures 1. Simple staining 2. Positive and Negative staining 3. Differential staining a. Gram stain b. Acid-fast stain 4. Structural stains a. Capsule stain b. Endospore stain c. Flagella stain Lecture Chapter 3: Prokaryotic Cell I. Shape: A. Coccus B. Bacillus (rod) C. Coccobacillus D. Vibrio E. Spirillum F. Spirochete II. Arrangements: A. For cocci: 1. Chains or Streptococci arrangement 2. Packets (tetrads (4 cells) or 8 cells (Sarcinae)) 3. Clusters or Staphylococci arrangement B. For bacilli- Single, irregular, stacked or chained rods III. External Extensions A. Flagella in Gram negative bacteria 1. Components – Basal body, Hook, Filament 2. Arrangement – (Mono, Lopho, Amphi or Peri) trichous 3. Movement – Chemotaxis, Phototaxis, Aerotaxis, Magnetotaxis B. Axial filaments (endoflagella) C. Attachment pili (Fimbriae) D. Sex pilus IV. Layers/Coverings A. Glycocalyx – Capsule, Slime layer B. Cell Wall – Peptidoglycan, NAG and NAM 1. Gram positive- Teichoic- (TA) and lipoteichoic acids (LTA) 2. Gram negative- outer membrane made of endotoxin -Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), periplasm 3. No cell wall- Mycoplasma C. Cytoplasmic (cell) membrane 1. Components – Phospholipid bilayer, Fluid Mosaic model 2. Passive transport a. Simple diffusion b. Osmosis 1)Â  Hypertonic 2)Â  Hypotonic 3)Â  Isotonic c. Facilitated diffusion 3. Active transport a. Major Facilitator family transporters –use proton motive force b. ABC transporters- use ATP as energy c. Group translocation 4. Energy production a. Electron Transport chain b. Proton Motive Force V. Internal Structures A. DNA as a Single chromosome in a Nucleoid region B. Plasmids and transfer of plasmids (conjugation) C. Ribosomes D. Storage Granules – Glycogen, Volutin, Poly-? -hydroxybutyrate, sulfur E. Gas vacuoles (vesicles) F. Endospores 1. Formation of Endospore-sporulation a. Core – Dipicolonic acid + Ca2+, DNA enzymes b. Core Wall Cortex – peptidoglycan + muramic lactam c. Spore coat – keratin-like protein 2. Germination – Return to Vegetative State 3. Location – terminal, lateral, central

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