Friday, May 31, 2019

Ancient Egyptian Religion :: essays research papers

Ancient Egyptian Religion Religion guided every verbal expression of Egyptian life. Egyptian devotion was based onpolytheism, or the worship of many deities, except for during the reign of Akenaton. TheEgyptians had as many as 2000 gods and goddesses. Some, such as Amun, wereworshipped throughout the whole country, while others had only a local following. Oftengods and goddesses were represented as part human and part animal. For example, Horus, the sky god, had the subject of a hawk, and body of a human. Theyconsidered animals such as the bull, the cat, and the crocodile to be holy. Their two chiefgods were Amon-Ra and Osiris. Amon-Ra was believed to be the sun god and the lordof the universe. Osiris was the god of the underworld. Stories about him turnaround the idea of immortality. Osiris was the god that made a peaceful afterlifepossible. The Egyptian "Book of the Dead" contains the major ideas and beliefs in theancient Egyptian religion. Because their religion stress ed an afterlife, Egyptians devotedmuch time and wealth to preparing for survival in the next world. The Egyptians had many tales about how the world began. According to one legend, itstarted with an ocean in darkness. Then a mound of dry land rose up and the sun godRe appeared. He created light and all things. Another adjustment has the sun God emergingfrom a sacred blue lotus that grew out of the mud, while a third version has himappearing as a scarab beetle on the eastern horizon. Temples were considered dwelling places for the gods. They were everywhere. Eachcity had a temple built for the god of that city. The purpose of the temple was to be acosmic center by which men had communication with the gods. As the priests becamemore powerful, tombs became a part of great temples. Shown below is a typical temple pig out plan with the purposes of each section given. The priests duty was to care for the gods and attend to their needs. The priests hadmany duties such as funeral rites, te aching school, supervising the artists and works, andadvising people on problems. Death and Funerals The Egyptians sawing machine death as a transitional stage in the progress to a better life in thenext world. They believed they could only reach their well(p) potential after death. Eachperson was thought to have three souls, the "ka," the "ba," and the "akh." For these tofunction properly, it was considered essential for the body to survive intact.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Scopes Monkey Trial :: John Scopes

Scopes Monkey TrialPerhaps one of the most famous trials in our history was that of the John Scopes. Scopes was a high school teacher in Dayton, Tennessee and was arrested because he was teaching the theory of evolution in his high school biology class. During the 1920s it was against the law in Tennessee to teach anything other than the theory of creation as written in the Bible. These laws were a result of a strong fundamentalist movements spreading throughout the United States. In 1925 the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) volunteered to admit any teacher willing to challenge these laws concerning the teaching of evolution. John Scopes agreed to their challenge, and after teaching Darwins theory of evolution Scopes arrest duly followed.The trial began on July 10, 1925. The prosecution consisted of Thomas Stewart, the Attorney General of Tennessee who was assisted by a famous politician and orator Williams Jennings Bryan. The defense team put together by the ACLU consisted of Clarence Darrow, Dudley Field Malone, and Arthur Hayes. Judge John F. Raulston presided over the trial.The Scopes Trial became known as the Monkey Trial because most people believed that evolution dealt with the theory that humans descended from monkeys. The self-coloured trial was widely publicized and made the little town of Dayton, Tennessee a booming city. Journalists and photographers poured into the little town and the monkey trial became an instant sensation roughly of the coverage focused on the heated debate between Darrow and Bryan on the issue strict interpretation of the Bible. The issue had become more than just what was taught in high school curriculum but became an attack on the whole fundamentalism movement.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

How Can We Tell What Is Good Or Bad? :: essays research papers

How Can We Tell What Is Good Or Bad?     To tell what is good or bad, a person needs to find what he or sheconsiders to be chastely sound and immoral. A persons morals argon taught by theirparents and from the society from which they are raised.     Society is not worried intimately what is good or bad, but how to obtainmoney and power. Money and power can dilute the values of what state judgemorally right. While the moral way of living would be to work a normal fortyhour week to earn income, the easy and immoral way is to lie and subterfuge in theiroccupation to obtain promotions and benefits. Aristotle said,     Every art and every "scientific investigation", as well as every actionand "purposive choice," appears to prevail at some good, hence the good     has rightly been declared that which all things aim (Aristotle, 517).Today society is not aimed at good. This society has bec ome a "me" society.People are thinking of "me,me,me" rather than thinking of the good of other(a)s.This society has found it acceptable for a football superstar to be found withan extrajudicial drug to depart the judicial system with probation and again to playfootball. This is a true example of how people today in our society live theirdreams through celebrities. People idolize immoral sport stars instead ofholding in a higher regard common everyday people, who are God fearing, bafflingworking, and ethically moral.     While in this society it is hard to tell what is true, it is also hardwhen compared with other societies. For example, some European countries havelegalized the use of mild drugs. These countries have attributed this towardless crime. Putting the question of right or wrong on the individual ratherthan, in our case, the government. In America the majority consider legitimation of drugs wrong, but has it really worked our way? Ar e not alcoholand tobacco just as dangerous, causing mind altering effects, attributing todeaths and diseases everyday? Why are not these illegal? The reason is becausepeople in our society hold a higher regard for the "almighty dollar" rather thanthe safety and health of their fellow man Apparently this society has adouble-standard. On one hand advertising and sending messages telling kids to"Dont Do Drugs", but on the other hand televising, for all the world to hear, apresident admitting to smoking marijuana and hearing him laugh about it. Thissociety expects the best out of kids, but rewards people who take shortcuts.Showing kids it is easier to live an immoral life rather than a moral one

Sir Thomas More :: essays research papers

I.Just think, if you were a woman you would only make seventy five cents an hour when men would make one dollar. This is one of the conflicts that doubting doubting Thomas more fixed or changed for the benefit of all people. Thomas More did many things in his life he wrote a book called Utopia which was about a perfect world where everybody was treated equal, he was a law student, priest, and eventually he was named a saint.II.Thomas More was born in London in 1477. His parents were Sir John More, a great lawyer and later judge, and his mother was Agnes Giraunger. He later married Jane Colte in 1504, it was a happy marriage, and they had four children Margaret, Elizabeth, Cecilia, and John to begin with Janes death in 1511. III.He was a very educated man. He entered Parliament in 1504, one of his first acts in public life was to peach against one of Henry VII,s financial policies. As a result his father was imprisoned but released after a hefty fine was paid and Thomas retired fro m public life. Thomas went to school at St. Anthonys School at Threadneedle St, and entered as a law student at Oxford University. When he was young he was sent to the household of Cardinal Morton, where he learned the blend of political and religious life. IV.He was a very bright student, enthusiastic about knowledge but also accustomed to basic pleasures. He loved to play on his flute and violin. Like Most college students More was short of cash so sometimes he would even perform for a crowd of people just to make a little cash. He also loved having pets more or less the house it is said that his home was a veritable zoo. V.Sir Thomas More had many careers, he was an author, a statesman, a scholar, and a priest. He served as cleric chancellor, the highest judicial official in England, from 1529 to 1532. He began his legal career in 1494, and became an undersheriff of London in 1510. by 1518 he had entered the service of King Henry 8 as royal councilor and ambassador. He was kn ighted and made undertreasurer in 1521, and was chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster from 1525 to 1529.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Legalization of Marijuana :: informative weed essay

Legalizing marijuana could lead to new medicinal purposes. This seems to be the strongest argument in legalizing this substance. Marijuana is a controlled substance, in like manner known as a narcotic. More commonly named in the past, hemp plant or hempen necktie, is one of the oldest known psychoactive plants in humanity. The main fragment in marijuana that ca characters the high people get form smoking it is known as THC (tetrahydrocannabinols). A native of central Asia, cannabis whitethorn have been cultivated as much as ten thousand years ago. It was cultivated in China by 4000 B.C. and in Turk Stan by 3000 B.C. It has bulky been used as a medicine in India, China, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, South Africa, and South America. The first evidence of the medicinal use of cannabis was during the restrain of the Chinese Emperor Chen Nung five thousand years ago. It was recommended for malaria, constipation, and flea-bitten pains (Grinspoon, Lester. 3) Since then many Amer ican research facilities have tried to cannabis find medicinal purposes for the drug. In the twentieth century has been proposed or shown to be useful as a medicine for many disorders and symptoms. As the results of various relegate research programs indicate, marijuana may be a remarkably effective substitute for standard drugs. In one study of fifty-six patients who got no temperance from standard anathematic agents, 78 percent became symptom-free when they smoked marijuana. (Grinspoon, Lester. 25). Marijuana is also used for medicinal purposes in disorders such as cancer chemotherapy, glaucoma, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, paraplegia, AIDS, chronic pain, rheumatic diseases, depression and other mood disorders. Though all of these have valid reason to legalize marijuana the FDA has yet to approve of it. Today drugs must submit to rigorous, expensive, and time-consuming tests to win approval by the Food and Drug Administration for marketing as medicines. (Grinspoon, Lester. 226 ) Those who are suffering from various diseases are also excluded from the use of marijuana. If cannabis was made legal, there are several medicinal uses for it. The most recent is a study of the effects of marijuana on tenfold Sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Eventually victims of the disease may become totally paralyzed and forced to use a wheel chair. According to the BBC news, (an English news website), about 200 people have signed up to take part in the first guinea pig study of the effects of this narcotic on the disease.

Legalization of Marijuana :: informative weed essay

Legalizing cannabis could lead to new medicinal purposes. This seems to be the strongest argument in legalizing this substance. Marijuana is a controlled substance, also known as a narcotic. More commonly named in the past, hemp plant or cannabis, is one of the oldest known psychoactive plants in humanity. The main ingredient in marijuana that causes the high people get form smoking it is known as THC (tetrahydrocannabinols). A native of central Asia, cannabis may have been well-mannered as much as ten thousand years ago. It was cultivated in China by 4000 B.C. and in Turk Stan by 3000 B.C. It has long been used as a medicine in India, China, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, South Africa, and South America. The first evidence of the medicinal use of cannabis was during the reign of the Chinese emperor butterfly Chen Nung five thousand years ago. It was recommended for malaria, constipation, and rheumatic pains (Grinspoon, Lester. 3) Since then many American research facilities have tried to cannabis find medicinal purposes for the drug. In the twentieth century has been proposed or shown to be useful as a medicine for many disorders and symptoms. As the results of various state research programs indicate, marijuana may be a remarkably effective substitute for standard drugs. In one study of fifty-six patients who got no relief from standard anathematic agents, 78 percent became symptom-free when they smoked marijuana. (Grinspoon, Lester. 25). Marijuana is also used for medicinal purposes in disorders such as cancer chem otherwiseapy, glaucoma, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, paraplegia, AIDS, chronic pain, rheumatic diseases, depression and other mood disorders. Though all of these have valid reason to legalize marijuana the FDA has yet to approve of it. Today drugs must undergo rigorous, expensive, and time-consuming tests to gain ground approval by the Food and Drug Administration for marketing as medicines. (Grinspoon, Lester. 226) Those who are suffering from various diseases are also excluded from the use of marijuana. If cannabis was make legal, there are several medicinal uses for it. The most recent is a study of the effects of marijuana on Multiple Sclerosis. Multiple Sclerosis is a degenerative disease of the central nervous system. Eventually victims of the disease may become totally paralyzed and forced to use a wheel chair. check to the BBC news, (an English news website), about 200 people have signed up to take part in the first national study of the effects of this narcotic on the disease.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Literature Review Celebrity Chef Essay

This review should bring all relevant facts some the subject and facilitate practitioners and highlight aras for further research. In short glory countenance is some endorsing harvests with the help from a distinction. Consumer association towards a distinction endorsed produced increases their purchase intention as many see the celebrity as a role model. However, it is great that the consumer flowerpot identify with the celebrity and that the celebrity? s image fits with the produced he or she endorses, only then give celebrity backing be an trenchant advertising strategy. . 2. Background and Definition Nowadays, celebrities are used in advertising in almost ein truth context. Athletes such as Michael Ballack (Adidas) or Tiger timberland (Rolex) or models such as Cindy Crawford (Omega) or Heidi Klum (Katjes) endorse several products. These celebrities act as a spokesperson in order to advertise and promote products (Kambitsis et al. , 2002). Celebrities tail assembly c reate more positive responses towards advertising and greater purchase intentions than non-celebrity endorsers (Byrne et al. , 2003).Using celebrity as an endorser for a given product brook either be positive or negative for a company/brand. A campaign that turned out successfully was the campaign with Jamie Oliver as an endorser for the supermarket bowed stringed instrument J. Sainsbury. The successful format of the TV production The naked chef provided an ideal platform to use for the advertising campaign within a context relevant for J. Sainsbury? s desire (Byrne, 2003). An example of a campaign that did not turn out successful was when J. Sainsbury used the actor John Cleese in the value to shout about campaign in 1998.Employees and customers alike felt that Cleese was not the right personality to personify the supermarkets grapheme image (Whitehead, 2003). In the literature there are two different definitions of celebrity endorsers used. The definitions used are A celebrit y endorser is an individual who is known to the public (actor, sports figure, entertainer, etc. ) for his or her achievements in areas separate than that of the product class endorsed. (Friedman, 1979, p. 63) Any individual who enjoys public recognition and who uses the recognition on behalf of a consumer good by appearing with it in an advertisement. McCracken, 1989, p. 310) In other words these definitions says that an individual who is known to the public in different ways. The individual is famous and utilizes his or her publicity to advertise a product that does not learn anything to do with the individual fame. I consider McCracken? s definition as the most informative one as it is short and concise. The definition gives a clear view of what a celebrity endorser is. Previous studies be possessed of been done on consumers? response to celebrity endorsement in advertising.Results of these studies show that celebrities pay off advertising believable and enhance message recall . Furthermore, when celebrities are recognized with brand names, it creates a positive attitude toward the brand and a distinct personality for the endorsed brand. In the following chapter the method used for this review will be introduced. The chapter will start with how a literature review is defined, followed by the literature search, method problems and quality standards. 2. 1. Definition of literature reviewConducting a literature review is about understanding a topic that has already been addressed, how it has been researched by other authors, and what the key issues are (Hart, 1998). According to the author Chris Hart (1998) the definition of a literature review is the selection of available documents both published and unpublished (in my review I will only study published academic documents), on the topic, which contains information, ideas, data and evidence written from a particular standpoint. 2. 2. Literature search, methodology used When searching for articles I used the databases Emerald, Ebsco and ProQuest.These databases were used because of the highest ranked journals in the field of marketing were listed there. I used the article Journal quality list (2008) issued by Harzading. com, research in international and cross-cultural management. High ranked journals increase the validity of the thesis, as validity is defined as The ability of a scale or meter instruments to measure what is intended to be measured(Zinkmund, 2000). I to a fault tried to find books relevant to the topic by victimization the library here at Les Roches International School of Hotel management as well as the library database google. scholar. . 3. Description of sub-topics Purchase intentions Describes what impact the celebrity endorser has on the consumers purchase intentions. A consumer is more likely to purchase complex or expensive products which are endorsed by celebrities rather than by non-celebrities. Daneshvary and Schwer (2000) point purchase intention as an surr ound of associations between endorsement and consumer, depending if the consumer can identify with that association and purpose. Consumers? association to celebrity endorsement/endorser How consumers associate/have a connection towards the celebrity endorsement/endorser.If a company want a consumer to associate to an endorsed product it is important to choose an endorser who uses the product and where that use is a reflection of professional expertise (Daneshvary and Schwer, 2000). A formula 1 driver endorsing helmets is good, while a tennis player endorsing car polish is less good (ibid). Consumers? attitudes towards the endorser The consumers? often have a positive attitude towards the product and the celebrity, despite the fact, that it is well known, that the endorser earned a lot when promoting the product (Cronley et al. 1999). Effectiveness of celebrity endorsement/endorsers How telling is the usage of celebrity endorsement. It is, most likely, more foundive to use celebri ty endorsement constantly to increase the strength of the link between the celebrity and the endorsed brand. It is also more effective to use a celebrity who is not associated with another product (Till, 1998). Positive/negative effects of celebrity endorsement the usage of celebrity endorsement can be both positive and /or negative, which can influence the company / brand in the end.For example, using celebrities can be very costly also, celebrities might switch to a competitor, which would then increase the risk of a negative impact (Agrawal and Kamakura, 1995). However, in can be said that celebrities in advertising are widely spread and persistent and the marketing executives continue to utilize celebrity endorsement as an advertising strategy (ibid). Profitability of celebrity endorsement The use of celebrity endorsement will hopefully lead to increased profitability.A study indicates that there is a positive impact of celebrity endorsement on the expected future profits, which recommends marketing managers to use celebrity endorsers in their advertising campaigns (Agrawal and Kamakura, 1995). Friedman/Friedman (1979)Does effectiveness of celebrity endorsement depend on the product? Interviews with 360 house wives Celebrity endorsements are not effective for all products Till (1998)What are the effects of celebrities endorsing more than 1 product?Case study with 99 students, who were shown different advertisings using the same celebrity endorserThe use of the same celebrity endorser to advertise for various products has got a negative impact on the might of the ad, the product and the endorser. Atkin / Block (1983)Is celebrity endorsement effective in advertising and how does it influence customer purchase intentionsExperiment with 196 test persons, where each participant was shown 3 versions of an ad. from each one version featuring a celebrity endorser and a non-celebrity.Advertising using celebrity endorsement is under special conditions more effecti ve than using non-celebrities. Choi et al. (2005)How can celebrities be used successfully in advertising? How effective is the recall-value and the emotional response to celebrity advertising? Experiment with different groups of test persons. Advertising with celebrities is more effective than using non-celebrities under special conditions. Sanbonmatsu / Kardes (1988)How does the credibility of a celebrity affect the consumer purchasing intention? Interviews with 542 persons.Consumer purchasing intentions are more effected using celebrities than using non-celebrities. Tripp et al. (1994) How do consumers judge the celebrity endorsement, the ad and the brand, if the celebrity endorses various products? What are the effects on purchasing behaviour? First Study interviews with 461 students. twinkling Study Interview with 10 test persons. Simultaneous advertising trough the same celebrity has a negative effect on the ad, the product and the celebrity. Agrawal/Kamakura (1996)Which spar ing effects on advertising are there when using celebrities?Event-Study in regards to the effects on share prices trough the announcement of celebrity endorsementCelebrity endorsement can have a positive and a negative effect on share prices. Agrawal/Kamakura (1995)Can a single celebrity have a positive effect on the company? s value? Analysis of the share price of a company after announcing a celebrity endorserCelebrity endorsement can have a positive and a negative effect on share prices. Charbonneau / Garland (2005)How does a company find the right celebrity endorser for its products? Which criteria should be considered? Questionnaires 414 marketing managers at 148 advertising companies.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Grade 8 Graduation Speech

Grade 8 Graduation Speech Hello, graduating class of 2012 Good evening and welcome to alone the p atomic number 18nts and families who stir came to this graduation ceremony today. Our parents are the people who know us the best in the whole world, even if that seems hard to believe, its true. Theyve helped us become the people we are today, and theyve done a great job. After totally, we wouldnt be here without them. So, thank you, parents. Today, June, 26th, 2012, is the day that we, as a class, are going to graduate the one-eighth strike out. Of assembly line, we all know that. But do we really understand what it all means?The definition of graduation is to complete a class or course of study. Thats it, the original definition of graduating. To me, graduation means more than that. It means growing, it means changing, and it means moving on. Today, the ceremony might seem like its all happening too fast, or, it might seem like its never going to end, but all our lives well remem ber it, and thats what counts. My two years of middle school tolerate been a time to remember, Ive learned a lot during my time in middle school, and these memories are what we are going to remember for the rest of our lives. For me, it all started on the first week of September.All I saw was these big guys playing basketball and soccer and I was wondering whether or not I leave behind be able to fit in. Everyone else was eagerly waiting for the first school bell to ring after like 3 months of summer while I was just standing there looking everywhere as if I was lost. Eventually, all of these started to change as I started to know people better. Thing was, they werent as furious or mean as I thought they might be. In the beginning of the school year, I used to nervously faulting classes without actually knowing where to go, but now I am familiar with this school like all the others.I managed to develop many new skills and stuff during grade 7. Before I knew it, it was June, grade 7 ended, and to my surprise, Id survived my first year of school in Regent Heights. When we came back from a 3 month long summer, I knew what more teachers would expect from me. 8th grade began. We were the oldest, and the wisest. It was a completely different experience for me, with all the testing for specialised program registrations. It required you to know kinda few stuff ahead of what you were being taught.After all of that, term 2 came to an end, and we all started setting goals to do well on the next term. Many activities were held during spring. And as usual, it came to an end. We grew as teams and as a grade, but more importantly as peoplefiguratively and literally. We became smarter, more confident, and of course, taller. Together, we listened as the guidance counsellors told us about the exalted school and together we looked over the seemingly endless lists of classes. We turned in our worn, wrinkled, class sheets nervously, but a couple months later, all our worries were gone.Today, we will graduate together, in a matter of minutes, leaving behind a school, a grade, our team, and some great, great teachers. Together we will enter the high school next fall, and in four years well graduate again. Senior year will be just like this one, but the intensity will be higher. Im excited to enter high-school, Im pretty sure it will be fun. And, Im sure that we can handle all of it the teachers, the seniors, and of course, the homework. So, its time for our graduation. Here, now, today, were ready, even though we might not know it. Lets go, and lets make today a day that well remember forever.

Saturday, May 25, 2019


Section 8 SEKSYON 8. Hindi dapat hadlangan ang karapatan ng mga taong-bayan kabilang ang mga naglilingkod sa publiko at pribadong sektor na magtatag ng mga asosasyon, mga unyon, o mga kapisanan sa mga layuning Hindu lalabag sa batas. The right of the people, including those employed in public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to police shall not be abridged. Freedom to form associations In large part, this section reflects the countrys bad experience during the Martial Law years, when the right to assemble and form associations was unduly abridged.Obviously, however, it is equally clear that the giving medication can exercise its police power and abridge this right if the association in question threatens the legal order. Section 10 Section 10. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. SEKSYON 10. Hindi dapat magpatibay ng batas na sisira sa pananagutan ng mga kontrata. Discusses the sanctity of contracts and obligations Laws affecting contracts cannot be applied retroactively Aside all contracts illegal in nature are non-bindingSection 4 No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of expression, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and orison the presidency for redress of grievances. 1. ) Freedom of speech is not absolute, neither is a free press (more on that on the next slide) 2. ) Freedom of assembly references mainly to tranquil demonstrations related to public affairs Contrast in Singapore, for large assemblies one must secure a public entertainment license 3. Right to petition i. e. to pretend up ones grievances with government without fear of persecution Freedom of Speech means an individual is free to speak or utter any(prenominal) he wants without prior restraint. Right to a Free Press means an individual is free to write, publish, and circulate whatever he pleases without restraint. Speech and expression refer to any f orm of oral utterances, while press covers every sort of publication such as newspapers, magazines, books, leaflets, and the like.Radio and television are also included. Freedom of speech and expression and freedom of the press are collectively called Freedom of Expression. Freedom of Assembly refers mainly to peaceful demonstrations related to public affairs. The Right of Petition to take up ones grievances with government without fear of persecution. Section 11. Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate legal assistance shall not be denied to any someone by reason of poverty. SEKSYON 11.Hindi dapat ipagkait sa sino mang tao ang malayang pagdulog sa mga hukuman at sa mga kalupunang mala-panghukuman at sa sat na tulong pambatas nang dahil sa karalitaan. states that paupers or person who are poor shall be given free access to courts and quasi-judicial bodies as well as free adequate legal assistance (or free counsel to defend him in court) Section 20. No per son shall be put behind bars for debt or non-payment of a poll tax. SEKSYON 20. Hindi dapat ibilanggo ang isang tao nang dahil sa pagkakautang o hindi pagbabayad ng sedula.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Blue Remembered Hills Essay

The p share and backgroundSet in the West country (Devonshire/Cornwall) in 1943, the dramatist Dennis Potter explores the traumatic childhoods of 7 young children. primitively written for television in 1979, the defend follows seven 7 year sexagenarians through an real day of their lives. As the play takes place in current time the whole thing is naturalistic and there are no non naturalistic proficiencys such as flashbacks or former(a) theatrical devices to skip to disparate times. The play is raiment in a barn, a wood and a field on a summers afternoon. Over the two hr period the friends play and squabble, voxicularly victimizing a boy whom they call Donald Duck, the play climaxes when this character is left out of games and activities by his peers and therefore decides to play his suffer game a game of pyromaniaCharactersAs I said ear lie potr the play is on the whole naturalistic, however there is one significant exception the playwright Dennis Potter insisted that ad ult actors were cast to portray the children. He design that if children were used the listening would lose the true meaning of the write up within the sympathy that they would olfactory perception for the child actors.The BoysJohn Looks after Raymond, fair-minded, often challenges Peter.Peter Bully, really strong, is not very clever.Raymond Has a stutter, very gentle and sensitive, is dressed as a cowboy.Willie brilliant and he uses this to overcome Peters bullying, is easy goingThe GirlsAngela really bossy, pretty and very flirtatious for a seven year old, very self-centered.Audrey incessantly trying to be Angelas friend, very plain, overshadowed by Angela.The victimDonald Duck Boys put ont like him very much, girls allow him to play house with them. Very lonely as everyone taunts and bullies him. He is abused.Important hidden charactersWallace Wilson class bully, hear lots a bust him yet never actually see him.Donald Ducks mother Abuses him, plays part towards Donalds d epression and pyromania.Adult ActorsDennis Potter decided that for his play he wanted to cast adult actors to play the parts of the children, master(prenominal)ly because of the audiences reaction to the plot. He felt that the audience would lose the true meanings of the play, as they would sympathize with child actors. Potter took into consideration how child behavior differentiates when being watched by an audience, whereas adults would truthfully portray their emotions.My opinionIn my opinion I call back that Dennis Potters casting choice was a very bad decision. I see the play as more of a joke than a serious nibble of drama. The adult actors do not resemble children, but instead adults with mental difficulties, because of this I believe Potter has done exactly what he wanted to avoid and took the true meaning out of the play.Lesson 1In our first lesson we began by exploring playing children, from womb to 2 years old. We turned off the lights to focus on the themes of loneli ness and to focus on actually ontogeny in the mothers womb. I began in a tucked shape as foetus do we then turned the light on to represent the birth. From this tiptop we were babies and infants developing gradually from 0-2 yrs.Examples of body language awarenessFetus legato, in a tucked position.Newborn slight forepart of limbs- visual and audio only.3 months As above, slight movement of cutting edge- side to side to explore surroun cacophonygs visual and audio only.6-9 months As above, able to roll over slightly-visual audio and kinesthetic.12-18 months Able to wrap head alone and support self. Movement of all body parts now occurring visual, audio and kinesthetic.18-24 months crawling to explore surroundings kinesthetically Using objects to draw out selves up. It is at this age we felt that we would be capable of interacting with other actors, by both voice and body language. I and Connie chose to play typical childhood activities (clapping games and pull hair) and squa bbling.We then continued our childhood explorations by spontaneously improvising a classroom injection. My drama teacher acted as a year 3 teacher and my peers and I as the year 3 class. We all interacted well with each other creating stereotypical characters and situations Our task was to give a den in competition with the other team. We used stacked stage to act as a tower and I compete a princess.We chose a fairytale scenario to portray childhood imagination. This in any case helped us maintain high energy levels which are dictatorial for playing children. We used appropriate vocabulary such as founded that firsted tho and you are the bestest to tape the simplicity of childrens language at 7 years old. We improvised arguments with both our own group and our opponents over props and spacing. We also chose to incorporate a fairytale storyline into it and take an opponent from the other team hostage. We also registered how our moods changed quickly e.g. falling out and then making up over again.As I was acting I could find many similarities in my own and others performances in comparison to Blue Remembered Hills characters.Hayley(me) Very similar to Angela.I remained seated at the hook of our pretend towers dishing orders out and generally being very bossy. I also represent her flirtatious side by settling a row between 2 boys over who would be my prince why dont you both be princes then you can both kiss me This links to Angela because she is also very bossy and flirtatious.Warren very similar to Raymond.He stayed well away from the arguments and instead chose to play alone with his pretend guns.Sophie very similar to Audrey.Backed up everything I said (Angela). Held doll when I was climbing etc. Wanted attention constantly.EvaluationI think my performance as a 7 year old was well thought through. I used appropriate body language (free and wild) and voice (high pitched and squeaky) to portray my desired character. I think my performance was strong ly influenced by my 7 year old brother and 5 year old sister. I managed to hold the line in role by keeping my energy levels high to feel more like my character. I enjoyed this performance even though I normally dislike spontaneous extemporization tasks. I learnt how important it is to keep up energy levels and momentum when performing as children, I strongly believe that this performance has helped me get the feel and sterilise for childhood performances in the Blue Remembered Hills scenes.Lesson 2Character exploration and Still imageIn our second lesson we were to perform a role play, reenacting a selected scene from the play. This was to allow us to empathize with the characters and familiarize ourselves with their congenericship with each other.I selected the scene with Angela, Andrea and Donald Duck in the barn. We chose to stage this in the round to portray Donalds isolation, the round enabled the audience feel close to us acting feeling the tension. We used appropriate pr oxemics. There were a variety of symptomatics to my role. It is in this scene that woeful fallacy is used a lot as Donalds emotions are portrayed by the grubby, battered barn.PhysicalisationAs I was playing the part of Angela I was aware that her personal characteristics would be very different to my own. I was familiar with Angelas bossy, controlling ways from previous lessons. To portray her characteristics I did the following thingsThis forte showed that I was over confident.As you can see I had hold of the baby the whole time, although it was an effective way to portray status and authority it curiously helped me by restricting me with my hand gestures.I intimidated Donald at the end of the scene by using positioning and movement to my advantage. I used well-be establishd levels to show status Positioned my body as someone with confidence would Used very static and energetic movement to adapt to a 7 yr olds characteristics.I also used movement effectively when intimidating Donald. I circled him to show how my character controls the scene.I used centering which is a good technique to show a character physically. As this nub that my character is ruled by a particular part of the body, I chose to use the arm memory the baby. When I walked, this arm would lead etc. This also emphasized my status due to possessing the doll.My facial expressions changed throughout the scene mainly because of the themes and emotions varying. My facial expressions always portrayed my hubris which is my overconfidence.For framework- concernOh dear. Poor, poor Donald (denoted from text) My expression was very interested and showed that my attention was solely on Donald. This showed the caring and imaginative side to Angela I was also the mommy which may have encouraged me to over-exaggerate.Another example- Anger and intimidationQuack, Quack, Quack (denoted from the text). My expression was very bold and frustrated. This showed my nasty streak.Chosen prop in scene razzing Obvious choice as it helped me adapt to my character and her age. It helped me with my Physicalisation by restraining my body to certain movements. Helped me portray my authority,Relationships with othersAngela shows her authority over Audrey and repeatedly gets her own way.Course I be. I got the babby, aint I? It chunt your doll, AudreyThis dialogue portrays the authority in their friendship. The fact that Angela has the doll and is therefore able to play the mother proves how she has everything Audrey wants. Angela also gets a lot of attention from the boys which is why she gets jealous and frustrated when Audrey gets the attention from Donald, because of this Andrea copies Angela to fit inThe majority of the time the 2 characters get along with each other very well, especially when they play house and get to play the main parts. However when Donald interacts with Audrey, Angela gets angry at him and bullies him she sprains very violent towards him.The proxemics shows the audienc e how the characters feel about each other. This means the way that space is being used to communicate meaning.CommunicationLesson 3We used hot-seating in our 3rd lesson. Hot-seating is where one person takes on the role of a character and answer questions asked by the rest of the group in the way they believe the character would respond. Hot-seating is used to gain a deeper understanding of a specific character.Below are some of the questions we asked Donald Duck along with his answers.Any Brothers and sisters? Did have a baby sister but died from smallpox 3 years ago.Whos your best friend? I like the girls because I can play house with them.Was your father violent? No my daddy didnt believe in ferocity he was a Christian, an honest man.Favorite color? Red like blood.Does your mum hit you because youre drear? I aint no naughty boy she yet gets cross at me sometimes thats all.Why are you more comfortable around the girls? Yes because they let me play and they dont fight like Pet er does.Denoted means information taken straight from the account book.Connoted means to imply and read between the lines.D- Has shoes but no socks. shadowy and anaemicC- poor, not nourished, not cared for?D-Collects empty jam jars for money.C- Look after himself. Independent.D- Doesnt like smacking of the baby not in my houseC- former(prenominal) experiences? Treat kids nicely.D- talks about blood a lot when playing house with the girlsblood all over the saw. logical argument all over me. Blood everywhere. Blood, bloodC- Used to seeing it? Psychotic, fascinated by it.D- Lets have four sugars eh?C- Not normally got it, Rationing. Treat for him.D- imitates authority by banging up and strike down shouting for his tea.C- men dominating?, not used to power.D- Enjoys playing with the girlshe hugs himself with glee, rocking slightlyC- Nice females is different to usual, dont really fit in with boys, attentionD- Doesnt like being called Donald Duck. Goes into a psychotic frenzy as gir ls jeer and pull his hair. He howls but is totally submissive.C- Used to violence? Hates it because his name is not friendly, derogatory term.D- Donald wouldnt show Willie his jam jars until he threatened to kick his head in. The boys think he is a weed and a cry baby one punch and hell give inC-They know retiring(a) history, again evident from Angela in the barn. They use it against him.D- Hes got hold of a box of matches by going through his mams handbag. The boys discuss how she knocks him about, he sets light to the coal shed after she locks him up in it.C- Pyromania, get rid of bad memories. Fire is something he can control, shows status, redeeming feature.Development sectionWe were asked to get into groups of 4 and elaborate and bring out a patch up of drama around the stimulus below.We decided to use flashbacks to portray Donalds emotions. Flashbacks represent and explore the background and emotions of a character or a story we used this as we believed this to be an approp riate way to portray Donalds motives.As flashbacks are used to provide information about a characters past to explain a present situation. We chose to pick scenes where Donald was being abused and victimized by a variety of different people. We portrayed a life of gloom and abuse in all of our scenes. We also used imaging to represent Donalds feelings beneath the surface of his actual character.1st FlashbackWe showed the thing Donald most longs forhis Dad. We fork the audience through dialogue how his father went to war and Donald begged him not to go.2nd FlashbackWe showed how mother abuses him and how he is really scared of her.3rd FlashbackHere we denoted from the text.Audrey smack er one DonaldAngela Yes, and if he hits me I shall tell is mam. Herll skin him alive wont her? She hits you with the poker, dont she?Both Quack, quack, ( hit him etc)We then got Donald to show how he longs to be loved and accepted he begged and showed the audience his innocence. please, please dont, you promised we then went silent to add a contrast of noise and tranquility. However this was again totally contrasted by Peter shouting at him.4th flashbackPeter where them jam jars, dem girls told me you ad umDonald No I aint ad no jarsGirls enter and create a sound collage ( soundscape)yes you did, you ad 10 jars you saidDont lie you saidLiar etc., etc.The soundscaping (Sound collage) was used to emphasize and build a prominent ending . Soundscaping is where the voice and body is used to create sound associated with the atmosphere.We used a tableau at the end. Also known as a lug frame or still image characters freeze as if it is a photograph.We used positioning and levelling Surrounded Donald to show his isolation Peter and girls stood up to show authority Donald sat down to show his lower status compared to the othersAt the end all characters froze and we used direct address (where character speaks directly to the audience) this created spectacular irony. It could be argues that this is a soliloquy as it was also a thought spoken out aloud.Donald All I wanted was my dadthroughout our piece Donald remained on stage rocking and continuously repeating his speech in the stimulus, this emphasized his emotions and gained him sympathy from the audience.When not acting the remaining cast kept our backs to the audience and remained still and cogitate.This lesson we had to prepare a short piece of drama based on scene 6 of Blue Remembered Hills. The squirrel scene includes all of the boys apart from Donald.We used the script and kept the scene totally naturalistic as this is the way that Dennis Potter intended.We began by getting into groups of 4 and planning our piece. We had to decide who was to play which character. I played Raymond, Rebecca played Willie, Reece played the antagonist John and Tom was the protagonist Peter. An antagonist is the character who has some kind of conflict with the main character (in this scene the main character is Peter). A prota gonist is the main character who has some kind of conflict with another character.Another difficult choice was choosing the most suitable staging After studying all of the good and bad points of every staging, we decided to use a thrust stage. We thought this would be most fitting as it makes the audience feel close to our performance, feeling all o our emotions with us. It also allowed us to use the top of the thrust as a focal point to position the squirrel.As the scene was set n the woods we decided that we needed something to act as tree-stumps not only to set the scene but to also help us with our Physicalisation as we were able to sit, stand and hang off them. This also provided us with levels.We began our scene differently to everybody else, instead of beginning with the actual killing of the squirrel we decided to slit after this where all of the characters are silent and full of guilt. We used ad-lib (adding our own speech) at the start of the scene to build tension and p ortray the boys feelings of uncertainty and regret.As we began our piece with an anti-climax it emphasized the themes within the scene such as sadness and lament. We then ran the scene using the script.Throughout the scene it was compulsory that we changed our voice to suit our character. As the play was set in the West Country in 1943 we not only had to change our dialect to suit the place but also our spoken language (during ad-lib) to suit the era. Our tone, pitch, pace and volume all changed throughout the piece along with the mood for example at the begging where there is a major anti-climax our mood is sad and our spirit is low therefore our voice must portray our state of mind. I spoke at a very slow space, with a very low pitch, volume and tone this was to emphasize the themes of sadness and regret. However, because Raymond has a stutter I found that it was particularly difficult to add all of the voice changes as well as the stutter.As I was a 16 year old girl playing the part of a 7 year old boy there was an awful lot of thinks I had to consider in relation to my physicalisation. My posture was no longer feminine and mature, it was slouched and wild. My movement as a 7 year old was never ending I constantly had to keep moving, whether it was slow when sad or quick when happy.My group also chose to use repetition of movement in our piece to emphasize a specific characteristic of our character for example Raymond continuously went to the back wall of our stage to cry. This could also symbolize how Raymond is always at the back, away from all of the action. My positioning of Raymond was well thought through, I remained behind my other actors to show how I was the one against harming the squirrel as I was furthest away. I think that as I played a 7 year old boy well it has proved that I am versatile.Because we were to perform in our classroom we were unable to use lighting, sound or costumes. However if we were able to use them I believe that they would tremendously improve my piece.Costume coloursWillie-Greys, innocences and light blues to symbolize that he is plain.John -Greens, because it is a neutral colour for a neutral character. He is quite jealous of Peter being the strongest.Peter- Bold blacks and reds, as he is a bold character. Sinister.Raymond-Cowboy costume. Shown below.I believe that some recorded effects would have made our piece have more realism about it. A sound of rustling trees and the chirping of birds would have helped set the scene yet kept it realistic.Lighting would have kept the various themes and focus fluent throughout. I would have chosen the below gobos to set the sceneDuring the ad-lib at the start I would have a white managelight on the squirrel to make this the focal point for the audience the white would represent its innocenceI would use a red fresnel spot when Raymond says the word dead. The red would symbolize the death and blood. The fresnel spot is a lot softer like the mood than the par ca n for example.In our final lesson our task was to produce our own script including the character of Wallace Wilson.My scriptSilence.Donald sits alone, curled up tight, head down. He is shaking vigorously, rocking back and forth with continuous chanting.Donald come back Dad, come back Dad..Suddenly, loud shouts and banging is heard off stage. Donald s startled and freezes immediately.(Offstage)Wallace Wilsons mum Gerrout Gerrout thou feivin getA loud smack is heard offstage, followed by a cry of pain.(Offstage)Wallace Wilsons mum constant of gravitation wouldnt dream of stealin my matches if you Da were ere.A tall scruffy boy is seen entering stage right. He sits on the opposite side of the hay to Donald. Wallace is totally unaware of Donalds presence. Donald remains silent and alert as Wallace Wilson begins to sob.Wallace Wilson wewelwell es not Your ere nd I rackt lie you I dunt like you at all II wish you were dead.(pause)Donald (whispered) I fink like that sometime, but I dunt mean it like I dunt mean it at allWallace Wilson (anxiously) HeHello?Donald Me Mam its me sometime you know but I know she dunt mean it like it cuza me DadJaps ave got im.Wallace Wilson Japs ave got ya Da?Donald Yh 2 year now.Wallace Wilson (hesitantly) mine too.(Awkward silence)Wallace Wilson continues to clean the tears from his eyes. Donald lies on his back and gazes up towards the ceiling deep in thought.Donald Does thou mam drink the clear stuff eh?Wallace Wilson Yh, Yh she do. She says it elp er like but it dont.Both boys remain silent and both reflect on their home situations. They become more relaxed in their environment however tug on their turn to feel more secure.(Suddenly Donald breaks the silence)Donald She use the poker like?(Short pause)Wallace Wilson (Softly) Yh.Donald Belt?Wallace Wilson (softly) Yh.(Short pause)Donald For nothin.Wallace Wilson For nowt.(Really long pause)Donald stands upDonald so thou got any matches?Wallace Wilson erm well yer I ave I just gotta A young, pretty blonde girl enters stage right.Angela Who be dere?Wallace Wilson turns and looks in her direction. He quickly wipes his eyes and changes back to his usual boisterous self.Angela OhOh Wallace thou dint know it were you like.On the name of Wallace Wilson Donald realizes whom is actually on the other side of the hay and quickly scarpers stage left.Angela flirtatiously plays with her hairWallace Wilson I were bout t start a fire like I got me matches.Wallace reveals a box of matches from his back pocket.The endSettingWe decided to set our scene in the barn as we felt that this could act as both characters refuge. We felt that comparing the most powerful character with the most weakest would be very effective in terms of similarities and comparisons.CostumesI would like to experiment with costume and maybe dress both characters in the same way. I would dress both characters in dirty clothes, light blue and white in colour. The light blue would symbolize both boys sadness and the white their innocence. Dressing hem both too would further emphasize their similarities.Sound and musicAs this scene is totally dependant on he emotions being portrayed through sound it is compulsory that we kept unnecessary sounds to a minimum. Silence was the most effective form of sound, as it symbolized how both boys had suffered in silence. Silence also made the scene bunglesome and built up tension.Make upI wouldnt use any fantasy make up however I would use a mixture of straight make up and character make up to add dirt and wounds and scars.MasksMasks could be worn by both characters at the start of the scene and then removed when the boys feel comfortable opening up about their lives. This would make the audience aware of the boys feelings towards each other.LightingAt the beginning where Donald is alone and rocking, I believe that a stropescope (where lighting flickers to a rhythm would be really effective. Throughout the piece I would use a fresnel spot as it wou ld create a soft effect as it spreads the light more gently. Another advantage of using this lighting is that it can be focused on a character at an important time. I would use either a white (innocence) or blue (sadness) cinemoid (gel).LevelsBoth boys were sat down to show they are not very powerful or confident. Both stand up at the end however to show how they have become confident in each others company.Set and PropsA haystack (or substitute) to symbolize the barrier between the boys.MovementWe wanted very little movement to show the tension and awkwardness between the boys.VoiceUse both high and low volume depending on the characters mood and confidence. We also changed our tone depending on our confidence. We used appropriate spoken language in our piece.StagingI believe there to be 2 effective staging Proscenium pissed and traverse.Proscenium archThis enables the audience to see both sides of the haystack, and both boys actions and reactions to each other. However the audien ce is not close to the scene.TraverseThis is effective as the audience feel close to the actors this enforces the tension upon them. Although the audience are nearer it is quite possible that they are unable to see both characters due to blocking.

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Critical Review of Cook,  V. (1999). Going Beyond the Native Speaker in Language Teaching

Critical Review 1 Review lay down,V. (1999). Going beyond the internal speaker in language teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 33(2), 185. In his article, Cook argues that the emphasis or dependence of native speaker representative(NSM) in language teaching is not necessary. It is time to adopt non-native models both for language learning and teaching, and he provides some possible teaching methods. Firstly, Cook defines the native speaker and L2 users.Then he discusses the slight merely salient differences between monolingual native speakers and multilingual native speakers in terms of multicompetence so that there is no stable NSM. He also argues NSM is implicit and L2 users are actually using L2 differently instead of deficiently from monolingual bias perspective, which means native-speaker level is not a must, even impractical, to most of L2 users because they do not need to proclaim their identity through the L2 and only some L2 users have achieved native-speaker proficiency.After this series of arguments, Cook proposes some practical suggestions of successful L2 user as models and applying L1 for teaching methods. Cook concludes that more emphasis should be added on the respectable L2 users and on using L1, and teaching language is not to imitate native speakers but to help learners so that L2 learners are successful in terms of multicompetent. In general this article is refreshing, especially 14 years ago. I absolutely agree with Cook that successful L2 learners are successful multicompetent speakers, not failed native speakers (p. 04). In non-English-speaking countries like China where English is neither an official language nor a lingua franca, a simple English native speaker, without teaching experiences or educational professional background, privy be admired as a language specialist or an English authority only because he speaks so-called comminuted English. It is the time, 14 years later after this article has been published, to establish a positiv e image of nonnative-speaker teachers for the sake of both themselves and their students and for the fanatics of NSM to wake up.While in some other places where English is adopted as a lingua franca, the reduction of NSM is more meaningful in the way of being equal, due to the speakers various lingual preferences and ethnic backgrounds. Actually, nine years before this article, Rampton (1990) had called on the professionals to label native speakers as language experts in order to shift the emphasis from who you are to what you know (p. 99). So in this sense, Cook affords L2 users agency on learning to use L2 instead of to transform their identity into native speakers. However, uncertainties still remain.First, although the author offers the definition of L2 users and even place it from L2 learners, he does not make it specific what kind of languages one uses can be considered L2s in his statement. For example, languages learned at what age or for what reason can be ones L2? Or ca n one who learns L2 as an adult in order to stay alive in English-speaking countries be the same as one who simply uses L2 to serve foreigners in his own country? Second, the author observes that students may feel overwhelmed by native-speaker teachers who have achieved a ideal that is out of the students reach. (p. 00) I think the author slightly overstates the students fear of native speakers. The author himself admits that some L2 users could pass for native speakers, so why should all L2 learners be taken as not extraordinary in the first place? Also, the NS teachers do not only symbolize fluent target-language speakers, but also a bridge that connects two different cultures, which is cherished by students as well. Furthermore, according to Derrida (1998), language itself is essentially oppressive, thus both native speaker and L2 users are oppressed by language and nonnative-speaker teachers could also be overwhelming to the students.Third, since research supports the idea tha t teachers tend to teach the way they learn (Stitt-Gohdes, 2001), the nonnative-speaker teachers can be a distinguished example of successful L2 user, because such teachers are not only fallible as Cook states or presents a more achievable model (p. 200) but also they can share or deliver their knowledge, experience and strategies of becoming a successful L2 user. Fourth, the author mentions successful L2 users several times but does not give a definition or standard of it.Thus it makes me confused because is a successful L2 user one who is infinitely close to the native speakers? 733 rowing Reference Derrida, J. (1998). Monolingualism of the other or, the prosthesis of origins. Standford, CA Stanford University Press. Rampton,M. (1990). Displacing the native speaker Expertise, affiliation, and inheritance. ELT Journal, 44(2), 97-101. Stitt-Gohdes,W. (2001). Business education students preferred learning styles and their teachers preferred instructional styles Do they match? Delta Pi Epsilon Journal, 43(3), 137-151.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

History of Modern Middle East Essay

This paper aims to provide a detailed understanding of the fancy of Arab nationalism and the opposition it had on the Arab-Israeli conflict. Arab nationalism is a nationalist ideology that grew during the clock time when the Great ottoman imperium which had been ruling most of the eastern g belt alongge for the almost 500 years was facing its demise. So in order to properly understand the concept of the Arab nationalism we need to have background experience of the fall of the Ottoman Empire.After ruling the eastern area which included the Middle Eastern territory for more than 500 years the Turks within the ranks of the empire started to ignore other ethnicities which mostly included the Arabs and the Christians and scores of people from these backgrounds started to accept the Turk dominance. This was precisely the time period during which a sense of separate identity operator started to give out among the local Arab population.The semipolitical and religious thinkers among the Arabs who were well a strugglee of the Arabs glorious past became concerned that if the wind continues to blow in the same direction the Arabs would lose their identity and would eventually become foreigners in the field that had historically been theirs. So they began looking for the ways to restore the sense of national pride among the Arabs and at the same time plot the fall of the Ottoman Empire.Their efforts paid take when the Ottoman Empire allowed the Jews scattered all over Europe to heavily invest in the woebegone areas of its territory. This decision which was a plan to earn tax revenues turned out to be a disaster for the empire beca single-valued function it provided the Arabs a wealthy ally against the Empire. So the Jews started to migrate into their purchased lands in Arab lands and new cities like Tel Aviv and Jerusalem started to form, scores of Arab people withal decided to move into these areas impressed by the Jews living standard and education. subsequen tly on more and more influx of Jews from different parts of Europe along with the local Arab carry proved fatal for the Ottoman Empire who nominate itself losing manipulate over their territory as the Arabs became more vocal against them and managed to capture a lot of land from the empire. But the ground reality was that the Jews were quietly gaining control of major parts which had been previously controlled by the empire. A new battle for the control of major strategical position started betwixt the Arabs and the Jews.The Balfour declaration knowd by the British brass in 1917 made the Arabs more indignant, which supported the establishment of a Jew state in the midst of the Arab land. By the end of First World state of state of war almost all of the territory previously controlled by the Ottoman Empire came under the control of western power. The British mandate included what is today Jordan, Israel and Gaza. separate major areas which included Egypt, Syria, morocco and Lebanon were also being governed by what the Arab intellectuals considered the agents of western imperialism.At this stage the Arab nationalism had taken root in the Arab minds and the Arab leaders which included Christians along with the Muslims in share decided to form an alliance against the western imperialism. The point that should be emphasized here is that the idea of Arab nationalism had been found on the accompaniment that the Arabs considered the Ottoman Empire guilty of giving away the power to the west by adopting their ways of life and the allowing the influence of western power in their region. The issue of Jews dominance in what is today Israel surfaced later.Amongst the prominent proponents of this ideology was a Christian Syrian philosopher Al Yazigi who took a view that the rise of modern Europe was based on Moslem values while the Ottoman empire and the Arabs had abandoned those values, thats why if the Arabs want to keep their land and progress in the politi cal sphere, they need to revive the principles of Islam and rediscover their fading sense of self-identity. Al-Yazigi later on organized several feats in Syria to raise awareness of his ideology.Another important indorser to this idea was Egyptian scholar Mohammed Abduh. He overlap the view of Al-Yazigi that the Ottoman Empire was wrong in adopting the apparently modern ideas while abolishing the true Islamic principles which were the bum of Arab nations success in the past. He also felt the need to restore the Arabs self-esteem as a nation and made attempts at do this view reach every Arabs mind living in his native Egypt. Later on 1911 Al-fatat was organize in Paris whose aim was also the revival of Arab nationalism.The European powers were strongly behind this ideology as they wanted to break the rule of the Ottoman Empire in the region. Arab nationalist leaders shared this objective with the European power but wanted to take over the regime themselves rather than watch th e European powers taking direct control of the area. So the Arab nationalist movement started out against the Ottoman Empire and when the Empire collapsed it took a different turn and was then directed towards removing the western powers from directly controlling the Arab area.Thats is why the idea of Arab nationalism played a crucial role in the Arab-Israel conflict that surfaced by and by the first world war and became intense aft(prenominal) the second world war when a UN committee allowed the Jews to form a separate state in 1948 named Israel. Leaders from Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and morocco then became convinced that they need to gravel rid of the Western influence in their countries and also drive the Jews out of power who were now in total control of the land which the Arabs call the Palestine.The 1948 war of independence was the result of this coalition among the Arab nations i. e. (Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq, Saudi Arabia and Yemen) in which Israel came out the win ner and occupied most of the Palestinian territory. After this war on several do the Arab nationalism played a crucial role in this conflict till 1972. Major leaders involved include Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt, Muammar al-Gaddafi of Libya, Shukri al-Quwatli of Syria and Ahmed bin Bella of Algeria.Following the 1948 war of independence all the Arab countries began to tar absorb Jews living on their lands and consequently large population of Jews migrated to from these areas into Israel. Almost 1 million Jews migrated from Arab countries to Israel from 1949 to 1954. In 1956 Gamal Abdul Nasser closed the passage amidst Sinai and Arabian Peninsula and took the Suez Canal under government control in order to block the Israeli ships from passing through. Israel tried to attack the seas with the British backing and get the route open once again.It eventually happened due to the UN intervention which Egypt didnt get hitched with for long and blocked the passage again. Situation became r eally intense in 1967 when the Egyptian leader gathered the political and military support of the Soviet Union and organized other Arab nations under the Pan-Arab movement to attack Israel and capture the Arab land from the Jews. Situation was quite different from the 1948 war because the proper organization of military resources and unity of the Arab leadership as Jordan and Syria joined hands with the Egyptian leader.The result was the six day war which much to the disappointment of the Arab world was won by Israel due to its superiority in Air hurl technology and captured major strategic positions of Gaza strip, east Jerusalem and most importantly the Sinai passage. After that defeat the Arab nationalist powers by mutual consent boycotted Israel and concluded that Israel be not recognized by any of them. Gamal Abdul Nasser lost his life in 1970 when Egypt tried again to recapture the Sinai Peninsula.Since that time several wars have been fought between the Arab world and Israel and a lot of inception has been spilled on both sides, and it seems that neither party is ready to give up on their principles as this discontent between Arab nations with Jews transfers from one generation to the next. This essays aims to discuss the Persian transition and its roots and analyze the impact it had on the Islamic political movements across the Middle East. Iranian revolution which is now widely known as the Islamic revolution was the event which started in the 1970 and was eventually completed in 1979.This revolution resulted in the downfall of monarchy and establishment of federation based on Islamic Shria in Iran. The major reasons why this revolution is deemed to be one of the most important turn around in the history are the sheer fall of people involved in this revolution, its short time period and its impact on the rest of the world especially the Middle Eastern region. The Major force behind this revolution was the Islamic clerical leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini. Before this revolution Iran had been a monarchy for several dynasties.Ayatollah Khomeini who was considered a prominent figure in the religious circles of Iran took a view that the monarchy of Iran was increasingly becoming a follower of the western powers and polluting the minds of the people in Iran. Mohammed Reza shah Pahlavi who took over the monarch from his father in 1919 proved to be the get emperor of his dynasty. The reason behind his demise are not agreed upon by the historians but it can be concluded that his ambition of making Iran a modern westernized state with the backing of western world was the major reason of his fall from the authority.After taking over the thrown he tried to run the state in an authoritarian fashion and espouse policies which in his view would take make Iran a modernized state. He established closed alliance with the United States and other powerful Western forces. He abolished the rules of Shria and instead adopted the ones that th e Shiite Muslim population of Iran considered to be unacceptable, additionally his autocratic style of governance and the wish of functional discipline were also the factors that convinced the population of Iran that it was time for a change.Ayatollah Khomeini who had been exiled from the country by the shah due to his anti-monarch and anti-west stance picked on this weakness of the Shah and started to gather support of the population who believed in Islamic values. Khomeinis idea of the government was based on the Islam. He demanded that monarchy be immediately abolished and an Islamic state be formed instead. Khomeini first came to surface in 1963 as a vocal opponent of what he called white revolution in which shah decided to allow minorities to hold government office and granted women the rights to vote.And from then on his support began to pick up as the shah became unpopular by the day. The movement picked up the pace only by and by 1976 and later on speedily removed shah fro m his seat. Khomeini who was living exile continued to raise awareness among the Muslim population about shahs policies, which were heavily influenced by the American government and at the same time reiterated the need to bring a change. First jam gathering took place after the death of Khomeinis son in 1977 and thousand of people gathered to protest against the shah.Then early in the year 1978 another mass protest was held by the Islamist students foundation in the urban center of Qom. Several casualties were reported as the shah ordered the military to control the crowd which proved to be an overwhelming task because of the large reduce of people involved. In the same year another supreme cleric Ayatollah kazem shariatmadari joined broke his silence and joined Khomeini in his movement when one of his following was shot dead at his place. Shariatmadari didnt share the theocratic view with Khomeinie but the supported the idea of abolishment of monarchy.Meanwhile the Shah continue d his struggle for westernization and unbroken holding the meetings with the then American president jimmy carter who assured him of his support during that period of turmoil. The shah tried to bring some economic stability by moorage back on the government spending but it also turned out to be a bad decision as it resulted in mass layoffs and the joining of the newly unemployed with the rebels. Things turned nasty when 400 people were reported dead in the Rex Cinema killings in august.The anti-Shah element then took their movement to a whole new level by calling on a mass itch which ceased virtually the whole economy and the success of this strike virtually guaranteed the completion of the revolution in peoples minds while the shah scrambled to make amends and tried to control the situation fast deteriorating. finally in the start of the New Year 1979 the Shah to the joy of Khomeini and his followers fled his Iran and Khomeini later returned to his native state to establish a g overnment based on Shria.The impact of this revolution was widespread in the Muslim world as well as well as internationally. No other country has witnessed a revolution such as this before, its basis on the theological ideal and large support the Islamic leaders managed to get from the seemingly westernized crowd provided an example to follow for other the leaders of similar motives in other Middle Eastern states. It gave the religious clerics a new belief that they can get rid off the western influence and perhaps converts their own state based purely on theocratic principles.It had most influence on the neighboring countries of Saudi Arabia, capital of Kuwait and Iraq where the population of Shiites is substantial. After only a few days of revolution some 400 Iranian militants tried to attack and capture the holy city f Mecca in Saudi Arabia and later on Saudi authorities got a major shock when the an Ashura procession transformed into political one in which people chanted slogan s in support of Khomeini. Shiite clerics in Lebanon managed to transform their state into an Islamic one while other countries in the Arab region also adopted an approach to government based on religious principles.Since the turn around in Iran the political Islam has been the main theme of almost all the countries in the region and the clerics now have a deep-seated awareness of the fact that the people in the region are moved by the their religion and they can use the religion as a means of creating political movement. The governments in these countries are also well aware of this fact and until now have been trying retentivity policies in line with the Shria.The strong anti-west stance taken by Iran provided by Iran has been an emblem of this revolution and that continued to this day. Israel has also been a major target after episode cleared as the religious elements hold a strong feeling for the Palestinians believing that the Jews are unjust holders of the land that actually b elongs to the Muslims. Verbal attacks between these two sides are now a common site while a war between Hezbollah controlled Lebanon and Israel was one of the major events of the decade in which Hezbollah managed to successfully defend their territory.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Elementary School-based HIV prevention education Essay

human immunodeficiency virus- bar is important if the global efforts to eradicate aid epidemic will be realistic. A school based programme is also all important(p) as most school succession children atomic number 18 adolescents and new human immunodeficiency virus infection (incidence) is common among adolescents of school age and providing such with prevention procreation empowers them towards personal protection. Further much, it is important as school students are more eager to learn new training and the school is a veritable avenue to reach super population of young people (Wilson, 2010).There are two major packages involved in HIV prevention education in schools namely the self-control and comprehensive packages. The self-restraint package is limited in that it only emphasises benefits of delaying stimulate till marriage without emphasis on how to protect students if he or she chooses to substantiate sex. The comprehensive approach promotes delayed sex initiation whil e it also educates on significance of condom use. There are various ways a teacher can add HIV education to health classroom curriculum.Consideration in adding HIV education to health classroom curriculum Adding an HIV prevention school curriculum demands a consideration of existing local guidelines and legislation that directs the type and scope of HIV prevention or sex education that can be given in that locality. The cultural consideration is also important as there are usually cultural differences regarding issues that can be compulsorily part of HIV prevention education, for type, human sexual urge.A sound awareness of prevailing cultural and religious beliefs allows HIV prevention education to sensitively, hitherto efficiently handle issues in such a manner that does not contradict or conflict the existing values of young school age learners. There is also need to consider state of students as some students in endemic areas are already infected with HIV and this will work t he approach adopted. Family life and sexuality of students is another issue. HIV prevention education should address individuals of all sexualities. Starting pointThe starting point is talking to the students and allowing them to get hold of questions. It is important to ask them what they expect from the programme and assess their present knowledge so as to know where to concentrate and where their present knowledge is limited. (Wilson, 2010). Cross curricular approach This ensures that it is not only the scientific basis of HIV transmission that is integrated into the curriculum but also the social aspect of HIV/AIDS . The curriculum should involve real life situation including AIDS awareness and not just biological and medical facts about HIV virus.Take for instance the biological knowledge of the disease will not assist the student to negotiate condom use and hence the need to handle vital issues likes sexuality and drug use as well as relationships in the curriculum (Danny et al, 2009). Active learning approach This implies students are allowed to participate, involve and use the given information as well as apply them. Providing information about HIV prevention alone is not effective. Active participation can be via section play and group work . This allows for skill building such as how to say No to Sex.Here, the teacher may explain how HIV is transmitted, the various signs and symptoms and how HIV is not transmitted. A medical specialist may also be invited to give health talk on the subject matter. The teacher may try these by showing pictures of those already infected, the various means of transmission and non-transmission. Films and posters of those infected can also be shown in class. Teachers also gives examples of high risk demeanour using charts and students are later asked to give examples (Danny etal, 2009).Active learning is a useful means of imparting young people and inculcating in them HIV prevention and social skills. Take for instanc e the teacher gives behavioural cards to students having divided them into groups of 5s and ask students to assign the behavioural cards to the corresponding risk sign and discuss just like the teacher had earlier explained . Active learning makes HIV prevention education to be fun and enjoyable. On a discussion of abstinence for instance, after the teacher might subscribe to defined the concept and the associated myths and facts, students then discuss why young people may want to have sex (Wilson, 2010)The use of quizzes, drama and AIDS games This allows for assessment of what students have learned and gives them opportunity to put into practice, the information given to them. In HIV prevention game, colored pebbles are given to students with more colours given to a student than the other and the students are subsequently asked to trade the colored pebbles with one another. At the end of the game, those with more of red pebbles are regarded as HIV infected and those with more of b lue have used condom while those with more of yellow are regarded to have abstained.This whole exercise makes the process a fun and enjoyable. References Wilson, S. N (2010). Sexuality Education Our Current Status, and an Agenda for 2010 Family Planning Perspectives Volume 32, Number 5, September/October 2000 Retrieved on August 20, 2010 from http//alanguttmacherinstitute. com/pubs/journals/3225200. html Danny etal (2009). AIDS/HIV Education for Preservice Elementary Teachers Journal of School Health Volume 60, Issue 6, pages 262265, August 1990 Retrieved on August 20, 2010 from http//onlinelibrary. wiley. com/inside/10. 1111/j. 1746-1561. 1990. tb05930. x/abstract

Monday, May 20, 2019


IntroductionNegligence is a branch of civil right known as tort .tort is defined as a civil wrong in the form of break off of traffic from which the legal remedy is an confront of cost. Negligence is the doing of whateverthing which a reasonable soulfulness would non do or the failure to do something that a reasonable soulfulness would do which inflicts harm. Negligence covers immense argona this meaning that it does non only involve negociateless run and involves a combination of the concepts of certificate of indebtedness, breach and sufficient connection in police force. The complainant does not fool to express that the suspect either intended his act or its consequences. Negligence is based on three essentials which the complainant must uphold on the base of fortune in order to succeed in an action at law in negligence, this ar(i) Duty of c be (ii) Standard of care (iii) fitted connection in lawDuty of care (dongue v Stevenson)Did the defendant owe the complainant a duty of care? This is the question we submit, which the plaintiff must prove on the balance of probabilities. if no duty of care is owed the plaintiff calm must fail .the enounce has the responsibility for deciding whether or not a duty of care exists as the issue is a question of law having regard to the fact of the case . The method used to test the duty of care will differ depending on whether this case involves negligence advice or negligence act Negligence acts are based on the doctrine of-Reasonable foresees ability -Proximity.Reasonable foreseeability Where in reasonable foresee ability we get to ask was the defendant able to foresee that his action or omission would cause harm or wound to the plaintiff? . plaintiff must prove that a reasonable person in similar mise en scene to the defendant would be aware that their manoeuver may create a risk of harming the opposite person .breach of duty at this stage the concept of reasonable foresbility is concerned with the nature of the risk that has been created by the defendants conduct .in other words how would areasonable person respond to what exact type of risk.This is concerned with aspect standards of acceptable conduct that will be determined with reference to range of factors including the likely consequences on the plaintiff if the risk eventuates and the burden that would be imposed on the defendant to remove the risk (Sullivan v turned ) (2001) 207 CLR 562 . The following steps are the once the court broad approach seems to involve in ascertain duty of care3.1Analogies recognized duties of careDetermine whether in that respect was a somewhat predictable risk of reproach without that they can be never a duty of care .Determine whether the case is closely analogous to other cases in which duty of care has a ready been founded .If not look to the salient features of the case to determine whether they give notice (of) a sufficiently close neighbor relationship to warrant f inding a duty of care3.2.2Neighborhood factorThe conversance had brought a bottle of ginger beer after she had drunk some of the ginger beer she poured the remaining onto a strike and decomposed remains of a snail floated out of the bottle .she suffered shock and gastroenteritis .she sued the ginger beer manufacture. Was the manufacture reasonable(p) to her negligence? The manufacture was re liable(predicate).The court held the manufacturers apply general duty to entire consuming public to realise their products do not contain potenti solelyy dangerous effects that can be discovered on a reasonable inspection lord Atkins said that you must take reasonable care to nullify acts or omission which you can reasonably foresee would be likely to injure your neighbor. Who the in law is your neighbor? The answer seems to be persons who are closely and directly affected by my act that I ought reasonably to bemuse them in contemplation as being so affected when I am directing my mind to act or omission3.2 .3 Social policyDuty of care will not generally be found if doing so would subject the defendants to an intermediate obligation. policy consideration also apply in wide range of other cases where they allow the court to weigh competing consideration of legal policy to determine whether condescension proof of foreseeability and neighbor hood duty should not be imposed either a noble the party need to succeed in his action. What this means is that generalpolicy issues are only interpreted into account where it would concord been unreasonable to have expected the defendant to have done what would have been nesecassary to stay fresh the harm that occurred (stovin v wise)3.2.4ProximityWas the defendant so close that the plaintiff had to have him in mind? We have three representations to determine this (i) By physical proximity surrounded by the person or prop of the plaintiff and the person or property of the defendant (ii) By circumstantial proximity that w hich exists in peculiar(a) circumstances (iii) By causal proximity in the maven of closeness of directness of the relationship between the defendant particular act or omission and deformity that the plaintiff sustained4.0 Duty of care for negligence advicesThere are clear differences between negligence word and negligence advice. Negligence words cannot cause deformity by themselves. They cause redness only because persons act on them in reliance. second it is uncommon for citizenry in social or informal context to make statements less carefully than if they were addicted advice in business or professionally the last words may be foreseeable receive much(prenominal) a coverage or circulation that application of (dongue v Stevenson) might lead to many claims for large amounts remedy in the case (pomelo tree and associates v Parramatta city council 1981 150 CLR 225) developed the following test of question4.1 Development of the law(i)Was the advice given on a thoughtful mat ter? (ii)Did the speaker realize that or ought to have realized that his advice would be acted upon (iii)Was it reasonable for the recipient to act on the advice? Once the fact of the case supports the test it can be concluded that the advisor owed the plaintiff a duty of care4.2 shaddock test, reliance and assumption of responsibility Shaddock and associate were interested in purchasing some land for development before they made enquires with the local anaesthetic council to ensure there were no plans that would affect they development the Parramatta city council issued a statement saying that there were no plans that would affect the block of land.Soon after purchasing the Parramatta council widened the road making the block smaller .shaddock couldnot develop the land as planned because the block had become smaller .if they sold the land shaddock would lose the money because the value had dropped If someone gives information that they know will be relied upon and it is reasonabl e for others to swan upon it then there is duty to take reasonable care that the information is correct The advisor owed the plaintiff a duty of care in the case of shaddock associate v Parramatta city council5.0 Sufficient connection in lawThe plaintiff must prove that there was sufficient connection in law between the injury and the conduct. To fit this plaintiff must show that the breach actually caused the injury suffered which was repayable to reasonably foreseeable consequences of the breach. Sufficient connection in law has two components Causation -the defendant acts caused the plaintiff injury or loses Remoteness if the defendants conducts did cause distress to the plaintiff is the defendant liable for the damage suffered by the plaintiff resulting from his negligence conductThe plaintiff must suffer actual damage recognized in law .the injury suffered by the plaintiff may fall in one of this compartmentalization personal physical injury loss of eye in mechanical injur y, loss of hand in construction injury Property damage involve actual physical damage to property pecuniary or financial lose involve lose of moneyLoses of wages5.1 Causation We ask the question on a balance of probability. Did the defendant cause the plaintiff injury or lose? And to answer this we have some case test that we use5.1.1 But for test The just for test formulated by lord denning in cork v Kirby MacLean is useful for determining causation although it has limitations If you say damage would not have slip byed just now for a particular fault then that fault is in fact a cause of the damage, but if you say the damage would have happened just the same fault or not, then the fault is not the cause of the damage when this happens you find both parties say but for your a fault it would not have happened but its both faults are the cause.In other words if the damage would not have happened without a particular fault then thatfault was the cause .the damage would have happened just the same way with or without the fault then the fault was not the cause (cork v Kirby Maclean ltd) The but for test to have some limitation for usage say A and B light a fire one by one each other in different practices and meet up and burns down some house. chthonic the but for test neither B nor A is reliable as the house would still have burned by the other fire if he hadnt lit a fire in time in particular both would be held equally liable5.1.2 The common sense testThe high court has convey dissatisfaction with the but for test and its limitation .pentony graw, lennard and parker (2003,p. 386) a preferred approach is to ask on the balance of probability the defendants acts or omission caused or materially contributed to the plaintiff loss damage or injury. The common sense test ask a question of fact (March v stramare (E&MH) pty ltd (1991)171CLR 506)5.1.3 Novus actus intervenesCertain activities or action may happen to prevent or break a chain of events or procedures and render the defendant not liable for particular losses suffered by the plaintiff. Consider an employee injured at work due negligence of his employer. they are been rushed to the hospital and the car he is in is involved in another accident do further injuries to the patient .is the employer liable for this other accident suffered? Under this act it intervenes and rules that perhaps it carelessness of the other road users so the employer is not the cause and is not liable (knightly v johns 1982)5.2 REMOTNESSIn remoteness we look at the amount of restitution the defendant is liable for. The defendant is not necessary liable for all the damages cause as the law must draw the line somewhere. In the case of wagon knoll the defendant is not liable only for the kind of damage that were reasonably foreseeable that is damage suffered was not too remote. Example the defendant carelessly places a wooden plank which falls into a plaintiff ship hold and to unknown in both parties is full of vapors. The falling plank strikes and ignites the vapors with serious damages results with remoteness the defendant was not able to foresee that so the defendant is only liable for those type or kindof injury that are necessary foreseeable5.2.1 TEST OF REASONABLE FORESEEBILITYClearly personal injury or physical damages to property from impact are the kind or type of injury are reasonably foreseeable as the results of being hit by the plank, whilst an fusillade is arguably to unlikely to be reasonably foreseeable .however if the defendant had known that the hold was full of vapor then the explosion may then be seen as reasonably foreseeable as a consequence of the plank5.2.2 orchis SHELL SKULL RULEEgg shell skull rule qualifies remoteness the issue of reasonable foreseebility in relation to personal injury .once the type of damage that is reasonably foreseeable is personal injury then the defendant is liable for all of that kind of injury actually suffered that s why the rule s ays that you must take you victim as you find him (egg shell skull rule )hence once some personal injury is reasonable foreseeable example if a person has some heart problem the you tell him to go and work in place where his heart will be affected and he collapses the egg shell rule applies (smith v hemorrhage brain &co ltd 1962)6.0 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE ESSENTIAL ON DEFENDANT LIABILITYThe requirement that a plaintiff establish that a duty is owed by the defendant places a limit on the situation in which liability can arise in the first place . once the existence of duty care and its breach has been established , the requirement the plaintiff damages actually suffered not be too remote (that is reasonably foreseeable )place a limit on the extent of the defendant s liability .that is a duty of care limits when liability can rise in the first place ,and once establish ,remoteness limits its extent6.1 DAMAGESDefinition restitution is the sum of money payable by a defendant found the ma in purpose of an award of damage is fair compensation rather than punishment or retribution loss means the damage or loss suffered and can be in personalproperty or pure stinting terms damage is the sum of money awarded for loss or damage suffered 6.2CLASSIFICATION OF LOSSLosses for damage are awarded in negligence fall into two categories pecuniary And non pecuniary Pecuniary loss is defined as loss which can be valued or determined by monetary value an award of damage for pecuniary loss aims to return the plaintiff as close as possible to the position he would have been in had the injury not occurred Non pecuniary is defined as loss which is difficult to asses or determine precisely in money term. Award of damage for non pecuniary loss aim to slump the plaintiff for their pain and suffering loss of amenity, expectation of life and so on as a result of the injury7.0ConclusionIn negligence we have to proof that duty off care was owed to the plaintiff by the defendant so that we ca n have been able to connect it with the law. If no duty of care is owed the plaintiff long horse must fail. The judge has the responsibility to decide whether or not duty of care exists. If there are clear facts about it then duty of care is owed to the plaintiff. After establishing duty of care was owed the plaintiff must show that there was sufficient connection in law between the injury and the conduct to satisfy this the plaintiff must show that the breach actually caused the injury suffered which was type was a reasonable foreseeable

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Goals: Lawyer and Middle School Teachers Essay

What makes goals so important to slews lives? Beginning elementary I remember teachers eternally asked me what do you want to be when you ferment up? I said I do non know. At a very young age when you just begin school kids being three and four kids say a fairy, prince or something. Growing gagaer blend inting into middle school teachers asked me again what is it that you want to be when you grow up? my answer kind of changed the second quantify around, I said a heal but that was because I thought they were cool and made a lot of money copying everyones idea actually. towering school finally came around it was to a greater extent serious, my teacher once again asked me what are you wanting to major(ip) in? I said oh, Im debating right now. He thus said debating? are you serious right now? What is it that you enjoy? Any hobbies, favorite subject? I thought close to it and realized were he was going with that. It came to me I want to be a lawyer, I love history, govern ment, arguments, anything that has to do with law being a lawyer. Mr.Wright said now that you know what you want to be, what goals do you have to get there? Then thats were I started to think around my steps to fall upon were I want to be in the future my goals. My long term life goals are to get the highest degree in college, travel a lawyer, and further myself to become a judge. My first goal is to finish college with a jurist doctor degree. I am currently attending Eastfield College in Mesquite, Texas to gain my associate degree. I leave behind then transfer to Southern Methodist University (SMU).My major is family law which I will do seven more years of school after my associates degree to obtain the jurist doctor degree. The bordering goal I have is to get into law school by sayonaraing the LSAT as come up as completing my legal education. Law school is a total of two years or more after achieving the bachelors degree. I plan on then studying to pass the touchstone exa m to further myself to become a judge. My last goal is before I tense to be a judge I must get elected to the court by the people. I then will complete the judgeship training.After all those steps are complete, I will then be able to have my own name plaque as Judge De La Torre. Ive calculated the total years I would be in school is eight years, by the time I finish all these goals Ill possibly be in my mid-forties. My mother always said days will pass, if you do not do nothing now by the time your old you will have nothing go ine and you will wish you could go back in time, but it will be to late so do it now so when you become old you will be someone in life, Its mind over matter. I always think about that like your in school why not learn, your there anyway might as salubrious do something. Life is difficult and hard but I know to get were you want the soulfulness must not care and do any obstacles that come across someone. As for myself I dont care how long it takes or how h ard. I will do what it takes. I plan to accomplish every element I can to achieve a jurist doctor degree, pass the LSAT and the bar exam, get elected into the court. People who state what they want as a goal should know although it is not easy the risk is worth it.

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Global Chemical Industry

www. moodys. com military rank methodology Table of Contents Summary About the Rated Universe About This judge methodological abridgment The tonalityst ace evaluate components Assumptions and Limitations and evaluate Conside proportionalityns That argon non Covered in the footb each(prenominal) field Conclusion Summary of the football fieldIndicated military military rank Outcomes addition A orbiculate Chemcial exertion methodology federal agent control grid supplement B methodological analysis GridIndicated military ratings Appendix C Observations and Outliers for Grid Mapping Appendix D chemic application Over learn Appendix E learn Rating Issues over the Intermediate Term 1 3 5 8Corpo judge finance celestial latitude 2009 moodys globular orbiculate chemical substance substance Industry Summary This military paygrade methodology explains dismals approach to assessing credit risk for global chemical companies. This document replaces a previous publi cation from February 2006. The control gridironiron for the place methodology is substanti all toldy unchanged from the 2006 publication, with minor updates to set aside great clarity regarding application of the grid. We withal make believe provided a cle arr explanation of how evaluations in the chemical manufacturing be derived.This publication is intended to provide a reference tool that finish be intaked when evaluating credit profiles indoors the global chemical industry, helping issuers, investors, and separate sakied foodstuff break openicipants understand how key qualitative and quantitative risk characteristics atomic number 18 likely to affect rating payoffs. This methodology does non take an exhaustive treatment of all calculates that argon reflected in temperamentals ratings that should enable the reader to understand the qualitative stipulations and pecuniary ratios that atomic number 18 frequently or less classic for ratings in this orbit.This base implys a detailed rating grid and illustrative procedure of apiece rated phoner in a representative sample of companies against the factors in the grid. The purpose of the rating grid is to provide a reference tool that female genitalia be drug ab phthisisd to approximate credit profiles within the chemical industry sector. The grid provides summarized guidance for the factors that are generally just about important in duty set upment ratings to chemical companies. The grid is a summary that does not include every rating mete outation, and our illustrative mathematical function uses historical moderates while our ratings methodology as well considers onwards-looking expectations.As a result, the grid-indicated rating is not expected to rack up the positive rating of each friendship. 17 18 19 20 21 26 27 Analyst Contacts New York 1. 212. 553. 1653 William Reed infirmity President -Senior Credit Officer John Rogers Senior Vice President James Wilki ns Vice President -Senior Analyst St veritable(a) Wood Senior Vice President not bad(p) of Japan 81. 35408. 4100 Noriko Kosaka Vice President -Senior Analyst Analyst Contacts continued on last page Rating Methodology disconsolates globular incorporated Finance spherical chemical substance IndustryThe grid contains five key factors that are important in our assessments for ratings in the global chemical sector 1. business organization Profile 2. sizing & st business leader 3. Cost condition 4. leverage / mo wampumary Policies 5. Financial force out Each of these factors besides encompasses a soma of sub-factors or inflection, which we explain in detail. Since an issuers scoring on a grouchy grid factor much will not match its overall rating, in the Appendix we include a brief backchat of outliers companies whose grid-indicated rating for a specific factor differs signifi puketly from the actual rating.This rating methodology is not intended to be an exhaustive wa tchword of all factors that darks analysts consider in ratings in this sector. We air that our analysis for ratings in this sector covers factors that are general across all industries ( much(prenominal) as ownership, heed, liquidity, legal structure in the corporate organization, and corporate governance) as closely as factors that can be meaningful on a company specific basis. Our ratings consider qualitative considerations and factors that do not leave themselves to a transparent demonstrateation in a grid embodimentat.The grid represents a compromise betwixt greater complexness, which would result in grid-indicated ratings that mathematical function much closely to actual ratings, and simplicity, which enhances a transparent presentation of the factors that are most important for ratings in this sector most of the measure. Because this methodology applies globally, it is necessarily general in nearly respects and is not intended to be an exhaustive and country-spec ific discussion of all factors that rancids analysts consider in every rating. sorrys rating approach considers country-specific differences and at the same time allows for qualitative evaluation of these factors as hearty as otherwise factors that cannot be easily presented in grid format. Highlights of this musical theme include ? ? ? An overview of our rated universe. A description of the key factors that drive rating quality. Comments on the rating methodologys assumptions and limitations, including a discussion on other rating considerations that are not included in the grid.The Appendices guide the rating grid criteria on one page (Appendix A), tables that illustrate the application of the methodology grid to 20 representative rated chemical companies (Appendix B) with explanatory comments on some of the more than significant differences between the grid-implied rating and our actual rating (Appendix C), a brief industry overview (Appendix D), and a discussion of key r ating issues for the chemical sector over the intermediate term (Appendix E). 2 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? dark-skinneds world-wide corporate Finance ball-shaped chemical substance Industry Rating Methodology moodys spheric incarnate FinanceGlobal chemic Industry About the Rated Universe Moodys rates 107 companies globally in the chemicals and allied industries. In the aggregate, these issuers assimilate approximately $230 billion of rated debt. Our definition of the chemical industry includes a variety of colligate industries, such as ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Commodity organic and inorganic chemicals ? Specialty chemicals ? Plastics, resins and elastomers ? Fertilizers, agricultural chemicals and manipulateds ? Industrial gases ? Architectural and industrial coatings ? Flavors and fragrances ? otherwise food ingredients ? Pharmaceutical intermediates ?Organometallics ? Specialty materials produced from refinery by- harvest-feasts ? Specialty materials that ar e use in composites ? These companies develop and produce a wide variety of products including basic chemicals, speciality materials, and industrial gases. Products cat from confessedly commodities to postgraduately customized products used in technically dealing applications. The rated universe is spread doneout the world with the highest concentrations in the Americas (68), Europe (24) and Middle East/Asia (15). Companies range in size from as large as $40 billion in revenues to as underage as $100 million.Some whitethorn be multinational with numerous manufacturing lieus around the globe, while others may turn tail a single facility with domestic customers notwithstanding. The highly vaporific nature of the industry as thoroughly as fairly high levels of business risk make it increasingly difficult for all but a select few companies who are extremely large and diversified to achieve and maintain a Aa rating. Ratings of A3 or preceding(prenominal) are generally lim ited to larger companies or to smaller specialty companies that abut un public stability in financial performance and coitusly low business risk.The corporal Family Rating (CFR) or senior unsecured ratings of the covered issuers range from Aa2 to Caa2 with a concentration in the utter, Ba and B rating categories. The median rating for chemical companies is Ba1. The vast majority of companies 81 out of 107, approximately 76%, are in the utter (27), Ba (26), and B (28) range because of the alternate(prenominal) nature of the industry and our view of the industrys moderate to high business risk. 3 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global chemical substance Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate FinanceGlobal Chemical Industry Exhibit 1 Global Chemical Rating Distribution 2009 and 2006 Chemical Industry Ratings Distribution 25 Number of Issuers 20 15 10 5 0 Aa2 Aa3 A1 A2 A3 let out1 emit2 blate3 Ba1 Ba2 Ba3 Ratings 2009 107 co m panies 2006 111 com panies B1 B2 B3 Caa1 Caa2 Caa3 Over the last ten days, in Europe and in the US, a stiring number of defective grade names perplex been added to the rated universe. This is attributable in part to incumbents recent strategic efforts to tapersing on their core businesses by selling non-core assets as strong as to a growing interest from private equity sponsors.For the purpose of this methodology we have identified 20 representative issuers out of the companies that we rate globally. These issuers represent both(prenominal) investment grade and speculative grade issuers. The criteria used to select the 20 centre on the larger, in terms of revenues, well-known issuers. For this case the proportion of investment grade to non-investment grade issuers de tonal patternated is higher than it is in the rated universe. 4 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate Fin anceGlobal Chemical Industry Exhibit 2 Global Chemical Rating Methodology Representative ideal keep company Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Shin-Etsu Chemical high society Ltd BASF (SE) E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company Kaneka union Teijin special Bayer AG Akzo Nobel N. V. potash fraternity of Saskatchewan Inc. Rating Aa3 A1 A2 A2 A3 A3 bleat1 emit1 Baa1 Baa2 Baa2 Baa3 Ba1 Ba2 Ba3 Ba3 B1 B1 B1 B3 Outlook horse barn Stable ban Stable Negative Stable Negative Stable Stable Stable Stable Negative Stable Positive Stable Stable Stable Stable Positive NegativeApprox Debt millions $189 $21,347 $7,545 $293 $2,143 $20,215 $5,233 $3,082 $2,716 $1,441 $1,971 $23,073 $4,456 $3,390 $3,156 $1,217 $1,904 $4,681 $423 $3,451 LG Chem, Ltd. Eastman Chemical Company Yara International ASA The Dow Chemical Company Braskem SA Celanese tummy Nalco Company ISP Chemco LLC NOVA Chemicals Company Huntsman Corporation PolyOne Corp Hexion Specialty Chemicals Inc. About This Rating Methodology This report explains the rating methodology for chemical companies in six sections, which are summarized as follows 1.Identification of Key Rating Factors The grid in this rating methodology focuses on five key rating factors. These five broad factors are further confounded down into eleven sub-factors that are evenly weighted. 5 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Factor Weighting Sub-Factor Weighting Rating Factor Relevant Sub-factor Operational Diversity Product Diversity Geographic Diversity Factor 1 course Profile 9. 09%Commodity/Specialty Market Shares crank Material Access Government restore revenue enhancements 9. 09% 9. 09% 9. 09% 9. 09% 9. 09% 9. 09% 9. 09% 9. 09% 9. 09% 9. 09% Factor 2 sizing & stability 27. 27% Divisions of Equal size stability of EBITDA Factor 3 Cost function 18. 18% EBITDA brim (5 yr Avg. ) ROA EBIT / Avg. Assets (5 yr Avg. ) Factor 4 Leverage / Financial Policies 18. 18% Current Debt / corking* Debt / EBITDA (5 yr Avg. )* EBITDA/ occupy Expense Factor 5 Financial Strength 27. 27% bear hard cash consort/Debt (5 yr Avg. )* impeccant Cash Flow (FCF) /Debt (5 yr Avg. * *Where particularise net adjusted debt may be used (see discussion of Cash Balances and cyberspace Debt Considerations) 2. Measurement of the Key Rating Factors We explain below how the sub-factors for each factor are calculated. We also explain the rationale for victimization specific rating mensurables, and the ways in which we apply them during the rating process. Much of the randomness used in assessing performance for the sub-factors is found in or calculated using the companys financial statements others are derived from observations or stimates by Moodys analysts. Moodys ratings are forward-looking and incorporate our expectations of succeeding(a) financial and run performance. We use both historical and projected financial results in the methodology and the rating process. Historical results help us to understand patterns and trends for a companys performance as well as for peer comparison. While the rating process includes both historical and anticipated results, this document makes use of historical data only to illustrate the application of the rating methodology.Specifically, unless otherwise stated, the partping examples in this report use reported financials for the last three audited fiscal years. All of the quantitative credit prosody incorporate Moodys standard adjustments to income statement, exchange give statement and rest sheet bars for, among others, off- remnant sheet accounts, due securitization programs, under-funded support obligations, and recur operate leases. Note For definitions of Moodys most common ratio terms please see Moodys Basic Definitions for Credit Statistics, Users Guide which can be found at www. oodys. com in the Res earch and Ratings coachory, in the Special Reports subdirectory (07 June 2007, document 78480/SP4467). 3. Mapping Factors to the Rating Categories After identifying the cadences for each factor, the potential outcomes for each of the 11 sub-factors are mapped to a broad Moodys rating category. (abdominal aortic aneurysm, Aa, A, Baa, Ba, B, Caa, Ca). 6 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry 4.Mapping Issuers to the Grid and Discussion of Grid Outliers In this section (Appendix C) we provide tables showing how each company maps to grid-indicated ratings for each rating sub-factor and factor. The weighted average of the sub-factor ratings produces a grid-indicated rating for each factor. We highlight companies whose grid-indicated performance on a specific sub-factor is dickens or more broad rating categories higher or swallow than its actual rating an d discuss general reasons for such positive outliers and negative outliers for a particular factor or sub-factor. . Assumptions and Limitations and Rating Considerations That are not Included in the Grid This section discusses limitations in the use of the grid to map against actual ratings, additional factors that are not included in the grid that can be important in determining ratings, and limitations and key assumptions that pertain to the overall rating methodology. 6. Determining the overall Grid-Indicated Rating To determine the overall rating, we convert each of the 11 factor ratings into a numeric value ground upon the case below.Aaa 6 Aa 5 A 4 Baa 3 Ba 2 B 1 Caa 0 Ca -1 The numerical bulls eye for each factor is weighted equally with the results then summed, and divided by 11, to produce a total factor score. The total factor score is then mapped back to an alphanumeric rating based on the ranges in the table below. Grid-Indicated Rating Aaa Aa1 Aa2 Aa3 A1 A2 A3 Baa1 Baa2 Baa3 Ba1 Ba2 Ba3 B1 B2 B3 Caa1 Caa2 Caa3 Ca Total Factor Score X ? 5. 50 5. 17 ? X 5. 50 4. 83 ? X 5. 17 4. 50 ? X 4. 83 4. 17 ? X 4. 50 3. 83 ? X 4. 17 3. 0 ? X 3. 83 3. 17 ? X 3. 50 2. 83 ? X 3. 17 2. 50 ? X 2. 83 2. 17 ? X 2. 50 1. 83 ? X 2. 17 1. 50 ? X 1. 83 1. 17 ? X 1. 5 0. 83 ? X 1. 17 0. 50 ? X 0. 83 0. 33 ? X 0. 50 0. 17 ? X 0. 33 0. 0 ? X 0. 17 x 0. 0 7 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry For example, an issuer with a composite weighted factor score of 1. 5 would have a Ba2 grid-indicated rating. We used a exchangeable procedure to derive the grid-indicating ratings in the tables embedded in the discussion of each of the five broad rating factors. The Key Rating Factors Moodys analysis of chemical companies focuses on five broad factors ? ? ? ? ? bank line Profile Size & Stability Cost Position Leverage / Financia l Policies Financial Strength Factor 1 Business Profile (9. 09% weight) why It Matters Business Profile is an important indicator of credit quality.The chemical team at Moodys looks at seven factors and aggregates them into a single score which is then mapped to a specific rating. The first three factors focus on mixed bag. Diversity, whether it be operational, product, or geographic, is a key component of business position that, can help mitigate the capriciousness in financial performance characteristic of the chemical sector. 1. Operational Diversity Single site locations, as an indicator of operational diversity, can expose a company to the conniption of unanticipated down times.We note that this factor is extremely important. Where a company operates a single site, the risk of that single site failing is deemed to have such a catastrophic conflict on the business model that even the prospect of site insurance or business interruption insurance will not provide satisfactor y mitigation against the potential effects of a fundamental failure of the site. 2. Diverse Product Lines Diverse product lines can help stem un presageability in cash escapes to the extent that distinct products can have varied pricing dynamics. 3. Geographic DiversityGeographic diversity can also be beneficial as a company with multiple plant sites can still be negatively affected by both economic and weather related events. 4. Commodity Versus Value Added Products In the chemical sector favourableness players are typically more volatile in terms of cash run away generation whereas the value added producers frequently produce more stable cash flows. At times, todays value added producers can become more commodity-like in their cash flow generating capabilities, so we will carefull assess where a product or convocation of products may be in its life cycle. 5.Market Share or Unique Competitive Advantage ample market share suggests a sustainable business position with the p roven ability to weather the volatile market conditions in the chemical cycle. In some instances companies with large market shares will adjust their fruit volumes to help balance the supply and pack dynamics in the markets served as a means to change product pricing. Market share that is protected by patent and unique licensing restrictions can also be a strong, positive contributor to stable cash flows and performance. 8 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ?Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry 6. Exposure to Volatile Raw Materials Raw material picture shows greater than 33% in terms of court of goods sold, for example, can often result in dramatic swings in cash flow. This is specially true in times of supply/demand imbalances, which can bring into being ill-consideredages in lancinating materials and exaggerate raw material wrong movements. Companies with the ability and pre vision to locate their take facilities in areas of the world where they can benefit from long term fixed riced raw materials have a distinct advantage over companies that are subject to the vagaries of the raw material level markets. 7. Impact of Government Regulation The final factor we assess is the positive or negative continue of brass regulation. This factor addresses the positive or negative role that government regulation or policy may have on an individual company or sector of the chemical industry. For many companies, the impact of government regulation may be neutral. For some sectors, such as the ethanol sector in the U. S. the very existence of the sector is a function of government legislated policy. In still other instances, the government has sought to ban the use of genuine products such as MTBE in some markets. This factor is also extremely important and we will, as explained below, overweight it when assessing companies for whom government regulations/manda tes are, essentially, the sole driver for the business model. How We Measure it for the Grid The 7 Business Profile criteria are merged into an assessment score, as follows Business Profile opinion Score This score is made up of seven criteria.To each we assign a discrete numerical value. The values across the criteria range from (-2) to 2 with many coming in at 0 or 1. Moodys analysts may use a modifier of 0. 5 across the seven criteria to refine the score relative to other companies in the industry. These values are totaled into a score which is then mapped to a rating category in the following manner Aaa Aa A Baa Ba B Caa Ca = = = = = = = = 6. 0 4. 5 to 6. 0 3. 5 to 4. 5 2. 5 to 3. 5 1. 5 to 2. 5 0. 5 to 1. 5 0. 5 to 0. 5 0. 5 ?Operational diversity We count the number of discrete operating plants that have a globally competitive scale. A (-2) is assigned for 1 or 2 plants, a 0 is assigned for 2 8 plants and a 1 is assigned if in that respect are greater than 8 large manufacturing locations. This is one of three factors with a negative score given the importance we assign to operational diversity. A sole site simply leaves the company with too many eggs in one basket. Product diversity We assign a 0 if a majority of cash flow is becomed from 1-2 key product lines and a 1 if a company relies on 3 or more product lines or product categories.Geographic diversity We assign a 0 if a majority of the production assets are primarily in a single geographic region and assign a 1 if production assets are in multiple regions Commodity versus value added products We assign a 0 if a majority of sales are primarily commodity products and assign a 1 if we view products as adding distinct unique additional value. Quantitative factors such as stability of EBITDA and EBITDA margins are used posterior as another component in the measuring stick of this important factor. ? ? ? 9 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Glob al Chemical IndustryRating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry ? Market share We assign a 0 if a market share is inconsequential relative to the near three largest competitors and assign a 1 if a sector or company has large share or few solid competitors. We would assign a 2 if the company has a unique competitive advantage (patents, know-how, etc. ) that could geld competition significantly. Market share assessments are driven by the definition of the markets served. Definitions should be wide passable to represent legitimate alternative products.Raw material access We assign a (-1) or (-2) if we picture exposure to volatile raw material cost at greater than 33% of costs of goods sold. We assign a 0 if exposure to volatile raw materials costs is from 10% to 33% of costs of good sold. We assign a 1 if the exposure to raw materials is less than 10% and a 2 if the company has a material, demonstrable, long-lived feedstock advantage. Given the i mportance of raw material inputs to ultimate cash flows this metric is vitally important. It is one of three metrics with a possible negative value. Given the importance of this metric, the value can go as high as 2.Impact of governmental regulations or policies For companies subject to significant government regulations or reasonable to changes in government policies, we assign a score reflecting the positive or negative impact of these regulations/policies on the companies long term financial performance. Most of the companies in this industry will score a 0. ethanol producers in the US would be assigned a (-1) because of their reliance on government regulation to create demand for the product. Companies that would be positively affected over the long term by government regulations could be assigned a 1. ? The importance of the business profile score is highlighted by the fact that, in certain cases, it can outweigh all other factors in the methodology, materially lowering rati ngs. The dickens most giving examples are operations limited to a single site and a business model whose mastery is highly or solely qualified on government actions or policies. Factor 1 Business Profile (9. 09%) Weight a) Business Position Assessment 9. 09% Aaa ? 6. 0 Aa 4. 5 6. 0 A 3. 5 4. 5 Baa 2. 5 3. 5 Ba 1. 5 2. 5 B 0. 5 1. 5 Caa 0. 5 0. 5 Ca 0. 5A chart that illustrates grid mapping results for Factor 1 and a discussion of outliers for companies in the sample is included in Appendix C. Factor 2 Size & Stability (27. 27% weight) Why It Matters This factor includes discrete quantitative measures that attempt to measure size, diversity and the stability of a business model. Large revenues combined with large divisions as well as a long explanation of stable performance suggest sustainable business positions that have been and will be able to incontrovertibly weather the vagaries of big(p) and economic cycles. SizeSize can suggest the ability to benefit from much wishinged economies of scale both in production and access to raw materials on a preferred basis. In addition, size suggests the ability to operate large customers globally an important attribute as many customers step up efforts to reduce the number of their suppliers. Size also tends to favor the companies that sovereigns, government related entities, and other large companies take aim as their joint venture partners or technology suppliers of chemicals that add important value added properties to customers products. Number of DivisionsThe presence of multiple large divisions typically signals a balanced diversified product portfolio and, by extension, more stable cash flows. Companies with high product concentration may give away more volatile cash flows and may be more vulnerable to one time events that can be disconfirming to credit quality. Multiple divisions also provide for discrete assets that can be sold as prerequisite to provide alternate liquidity. Larger companie s 10 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate FinanceGlobal Chemical Industry with many divisions can, for example, sell weaker performing or non-core segments, with the sale proceeds providing living for debt reduction or growth in other segments. Stability of Business Model (Stability of EBITDA) Given the diversity of this industry, we attempt to gauge the likely level of irritability in earnings and cash flow. Companies with elevated levels of capriciousness in earnings and cash flow will require better liquidity and more lively financial metrics, on average, to compensate for uncertainty over the magnitude and duration of potential downturns.We analyze the volatility of EBITDA over a long period of time (7-10 years, when the data is available) to get an estimation of the expected volatility of the company relative to its peers in the industry. While there are many problems assoc iated with the use of EBITDA as a measure of both positiveness or cash flow, EBITDA is typically less affected by wondrous items, fluctuations in works large(p), and capital letter spending on new capacity than other measures of cash flow. It also allows us to remove the potential impact from differences in capital intensity across the industry.To the extent that a companys EBITDA may contain unusual items, or items that we judge to be one-time, the reported data may be adjusted to improve the quality of the analysis and hence get a better view of the true volatility of the company relative to its peers in the industry. When companies have completed a transformational acquisition or divestiture, or if seven years of data is otherwise unavailable, we estimate this metric based on a comparison to other rated companies and attempt to adjust for differences in product or geographic mix, as well as the impact of feedstock advantages or disadvantages.A transforming transaction is typ ically defined as the acquisition or divestiture of assets that comprise more that 1/3 of the pre-transaction EBITDA. While we measure the past 7-10 years of data, we would emphasize that our ratings are a forward view informed by historical volatility. To the extent we believe that futurity performance might deviate from historical patterns, we will modify this factor. How We Measure it for the Grid Size Measured by Revenues We use the most recent annual revenues or latest 12 month reported revenues.The current years revenues obviously can be either understated or overstated subject to where the company is in the commodity price cycle. While the commodity price cycle may be different for diverse companies, this metric measures all companies, by and large, at the same point in the economic cycle. For companies whose revenues are on the border between two ratings categories, the analyst would consider the point in the commodity price cycle at which the measurement is taken and th e estimate of future revenues. Divisions with Revenues of Equal Relative SizeThis factor can be captured from financial statements. We use the segment information found in the most recent quarterly report on a latest four quarter basis. We are attempting again to capture both diversity as well as scale. The analyst may adjust segment revenues manually to adjust for non-ordinary items or non-public segment information provided by management. For companies whose divisional revenues are volatile and subject to cycles, the analyst would again consider the point in the pricing cycle at which the measurement is taken.Our focus is to measure diversity of revenue streams. For a company with $1 billion in revenues if all revenues come from a sole division/product it would map to a B. If there were four discrete divisions with $250 million in revenues each (essentially equal in size) it would map to a Baa. For a company with $10 billion in revenues with four discrete divisions/products, if t wo divisions had $3 billion in revenues each and 2 divisions had $2 billion in revenues each it would still be judged to be relatively diverse and equate to a Baa. 1 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Stability of EBITDA This factor is heedful by the normalized standard fracture of the companys EBITDA as determined by a least squares regression on seven to ten years of data. We utilize standard illusion rather than standard deviation as it is much better at differentiating between commodity and specialty chemical companies.Standard deviation is a soundless measure that cannot clearly differentiate between a stable company growing over time and a commodity company whose volatility is induced by changes in its cash margins. Standard error is a statistical measure of the difference between the companys actual performance versus a theoretical line drawn through the data (hence normal growth in EBITDA over 7-10 years should not have a negative impact on this metric). The normalized standard error is obtained by dividing the standard error obtained from a linear regression by the average EBITDA over the period analyzed.This allows us to compare the standard error of large companies to much smaller companies This measurement is designed to capture two types of stability For smaller companies The stability of business or businesses relative to other companies in the industry. The absolute size of a company is not considered. For larger companies A very large or diverse commodity company may exhibit more stability based on the number of businesses in its portfolio, especially if the earnings of their individual businesses are not correlated (i. e. , all businesses dont go into a downturn or upturn at the same time).In statistical terms, if the covariance of the companys businesses is low, the companys performance should be more stable although it may be an inherently cyclical commodity chemical business. Companies with a normalized standardized error above 40% (which maps to the Caa category) are most common for companies with very low or negative EBITDA at the bottom of a downturn. Factor 2 Size & Stability (27. 27%) Weight a) Revenue (Billions of US$) b) of Divisions of Equal Size c) Stability of EBITDA 9. 09% 9. 09% 9. 09% Aaa ? $50 8 2% Aa $20 $50 6 to 7 2% 6% A $10 $20 5 6% 12%Baa $5 $10 4 12% 20% Ba $1 $5 2 or 3 20% 30% B $. 2 $1 1 or 2 30% 40% Caa $. 1 $. 2 1 40% 60% Ca $. 1 0. 5 ? 60. 0% A chart that illustrates grid mapping results for Factor 2 and a discussion of outliers for companies in the sample is included in Appendix C. Factor 3 Cost Position (18. 18% weight) Why It Matters Relative cost position is a critical achiever factor for a chemical company because, in a downturn, (either cyclical or economic) prices often slide down to the point where only companies with first and second quartile cash costs generate meaningful cash flow. direct cost positions are a function of criteria that include size, access to low cost raw material inputs, location of assets, labor rates, and capital invested. Further, with low levels of financial leverage, low cost producers are typically better positioned to vanquish competitors. Low cost producers, with low leverage, are better able to survive in a downturn and are also better positioned to grow when opportunities arise. A companys cash costs and its position on the industry cost curve, as well as the overall shape of the industry cost curve, are all valuable information.However, true cash cost curve data, while useful, is often proprietary or may be the property of various consultants and difficult to verify. 12 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Comparisons across the wide variety o f commodity and specialty chemical companies make it difficult to rely on relative or absolute costs for ranking companies. We use two measures in addition to information provided by companies to assess cost positions ? ?EBITDA Margin Return on Average Assets How We Measure it for the Grid EBITDA Margin This factor is used in part to gauge the quality of the pricing power a company has and is likely to achieve. It is measured using EBITDA, which includes recurring other income and excludes non-recurring other income and one time charges. This factor, along with several others, is an important measure of a companys profitability in multiple economic scenarios. We use the past three years actual results along with our expectation for the next two years, and to consider the average as well as the high and low points.For illustrative purposes the measurement used in the company examples herein is based on an average of the past three years EBITDA margin. The pickax of EBITDA, versus EB IT, is driven in part by the many and varied depreciation polices used globally and the neediness for comparability between regions. Nonetheless, we recognize the weaknesses of EBITDA, discussed below, and analysts within regions will also evaluate EBIT margins as well. Another reason for the use of EBITDA is the aterial difference in capital intensity within sub-sectors of the chemical industry. The capital intensity of a large commodity company can be very different from a smaller specialty player. The use of EBITDA as opposed to EBIT has a disadvantage in that EBITDA fails to address the capital intensity of the chemical industry effectively. Clearly an important indicator of a companys ability to generate operating profit should be assessed after the costs of plant maintenance and capacity expansion, as represented by its annual depreciation charges.Experience indicates that while a chemical companys capital spending often swings with major projects, it will generally need t o spend its depreciation over time as it maintains and develops new facilities. We attempt to capture the effect of this capital intensity in our use of free cash flow metrics in the financial power rating factor discussion. Return on Average Assets This is a strong measure of a companys ability to generate a reconciled and meaningful return from its asset base. This metric specifically takes into account the capital intensive nature of the industry.This is also a five-year average measurement using the past three years of actual results along with our expectation for the next two years. We use total assets, less cash and short term investments rather than tangible assets to provide a more meaningful measure for the universe of speculative grade companies. Factor 3 Cost Position (18. 18%) Weight a) EBITDA Margin b) ROA EBIT / Assets 9. 09% 9. 09% Aaa ? 30% ? 25% Aa 20% 30% 15% 25% A 15% 20% 10% 15% Baa 10% 15% 7% 10% Ba 8% 10% 4% 7% B 4% 8% 2% 4% Caa 1% 4% 0. 5% 2% Ca 1% 0. 5%A chart that illustrates grid mapping results for Factor 3 and a discussion of outliers for companies in the sample is included in Appendix C. 13 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Factor 4 Leverage / Financial Policies (18. 18% weight) Why It Matters Managements automaticness to enhance shareholder value via debt financed acquisitions and/or share repurchases, is likely to enlarge credit risk. The chemical industry is particularly vulnerable given its volatile nature.We learn about financial policies through a discussion with management that includes hypothetical scenarios. Such meetings often examine managements willingness to stretch its balance sheet and/or financial flexibility. The hypothetical situations often relate to acquisitions or share repurchase appetites. Concerning acquisitions, discussions often focus on size and on the combination of debt and/or equity that will be used to fund a growth initiative. Another key concern is managements approach to managing financial flexibility through a range of cycles.Specifically we look for an approach that emphasizes preparedness for lean times such that strong cash flows, when available, are used to reduce debt. Measurement of leverage and financial policies is based on two different estimates of leverage current debt to capitalization, and debt to EBITDA. We believe that the amount of leverage with which management operates is a choice and a direct result of a companys financial strategy. Issuers, particularly those in the investment grade and high Ba rating categories, often actively manage to these ratios.Certainly these ratios, especially debt to EBITDA, are used by providers of capital in the form of specific covenant tests. Debt to capital is a simple way to compare the capital structure of companies operating within an industry, and managements often cl aim to manage to it. This metric is also a way to assess managements willingness to grow via debt financed acquisitions. The debt to EBITDA ratio is a measure that balances the debt to capitalization ratio with a measurement of a companys ability to generate EBITDA both in times of peak pricing and in times of stress.We believe these two metrics provide insight into the companys financial policies, including its tolerance for debt and the ability of the company to ride out the highs and low of a cycle. How We Measure it for the Grid Debt to Capital This factor can be easily captured from financial statements using the most recent annual or quarterly debt and equity balances (incorporating our standard adjustments). on that point are certainly situations where this metric becomes less useful particularly in the case of LBOs or spinouts wherein book equity is low or nonexistent. In these instances this metric could be given rock-bottom weight.In the event that a companys book equit y is extremely low and the stock is publicly traded, the analyst may use the market capital of the company in place of book equity in this ratio. While market capital has its own weaknesses and can be very volatile, this approach can be of some value. Debt to EBITDA For this measure we use a five-year average of the annual debt and EBITDA balances as shown on the financial statements. We look back three years and use estimates to make assumptions for two years going forward. Factor 4 Leverage / Financial Policies (18. 18%) * Weight a) Current Debt / Capital b) Debt / EBITDA 9. 09% 9. 09% Aaa lt 15% . 5x Aa 15% 25% . 5x 1. 5x A 25% 35% 1. 5x 2. 25x Baa 35% 50% 2. 25x 3x Ba 50% 70% 3x 4x B 70% 80% 4x 6x Caa 80% 95% 6x 8x Ca ? 95% ? 8x * Where appropriate net adjusted debt may be used (see discussion of Cash Balances and give the sack Debt Considerations) 14 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology M oodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry A chart that illustrates grid mapping results for Factor 4 and a discussion of outliers for companies in the sample is included in Appendix C. Factor 5 Financial Strength (27. 7% weight) Why It Matters The three key indicators of financial strength are 1) cheer Coverage, 2) Retained Cash Flow to Debt, and 3) Free Cash Flow to Debt. All of these metrics are averaged over five-year periods to address the volatile nature of the industry. stakes coverage invade coverage can be particularly meaningful for speculative grade companies. This is especially true if the interest rate environment is in a period of change such as the migration from lower rates to higher rates and an issuer is facing the need to refinance debt that is nearing maturity. It is a less important metric for higher-rated companies.The remaining two metrics are useful across the rating spectrum and relate to the amount of cash flow available to cover varied sc enarios of both operating ask and financing needs. ? ? Operating needs include major items such as working capital and capital spending. Financing needs refers to the impact of dividends and the free cash then available to service debt. As discussed above, the use of EBITDA (as opposed to EBIT) in the interest coverage ratio is important for companies in the chemical industry and the decision to use it is a function of the need to make the ratio more comparable globally.Retained Cash Flow and Free Cash Flow The cash flow metrics we use measure two different levels of cash flow retained cash flow and free cash flow and their ratio to total adjusted debt. Retained cash flow is a broader measure of financial flexibility than free cash flow as it excludes the potential noise created by changes in working capital and unusual capital spending programs. This is a reformatory measure given the volatility and the variation in capital intensity within the chemical sector.As with other facto rs in which debt is involved we can look at these cash flow metrics in two ways as a percentage of both debt and of net debt (net of cash balances). We use net debt for companies at which it is either a stated, long-lived policy to hold material cash balances or for which there may be unique scenarios such as recent asset sales whereby cash may be earmarked for use in debt reduction efforts. In some specific instances we may use a net debt denominator for the free cash flow metric as well. A more detailed discussion of our views on cash balances appears below.Free cash flow is, in many instances, one of the most important and reliable measures of financial strength and flexibility. This metric reflects a companys primary source of liquidity as it directly speaks to managements ability to service its debt burden after considering both its operating and financial commitments to shareholders. In this metric we often identify where capital spending programs may be extraordinarily large and/or risky. At times, programs can have a direct impact on ratings because of the size of expenditure that may be involved as well as the risks of executing the program on time and on budget.If, for example, a large amount of capital is spent on new greenfield capacity and we believe that such capacity is being added at a time when product prices are low (i. e. , there is a lack of an adequate return on capital) the ratings may be negatively affected. There is also the risk that anticipated operating cash cost benefits upon project completion are different than expected. 15 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry How We Measure it for the GridInterest coverage This metric is a straightforward look at EBITDA (adjusted for non-recurring other income and one-time charges) to gross interest expense (including capitalized interest). This is a five-year mea sure. Cash Flow to Debt ? Retained Cash Flow to Debt Defined as funds from operations (FFO) minus dividends, as a percentage of total debt. This is a five-year measure. Free Cash Flow to Debt Defined as cash flow from operations (by its nature operating cash flow is determined after taking into account working capital) minus capital spending and dividends, as a percentage of total debt.This is a five-year measure. ? Cash Balances and salary Debt Considerations Typically, analysts approach the use of cash balances and the use of cash in net debt calculations in a conservativist fashion. As a general rule we would not typically consider cash on the balance sheet as a true offset to adjusted total debt in for the purpose of ratio analysis. Reasons that we would not look at cash on the balance sheet as fungible for the debt include concern that ? the cash is easily used for other purposes and debt reduction is only counted hen debt is permanently reduced in some instances cash is ac tually needed to fund the day-to-day operations of the issuer the cash is stranded afield and subject to material taxes such that the true cash balance is materially lower than represented in the financial statements there may be other claims on the cash for restructuring efforts or legacy liabilities. ? ? ? There are, however, examples where our analysis for chemical companies incorporates cash balances as providing a measure of offset to adjusted total debt balances. Exceptions to the above analytical approach, for which we give credit for cash balances include ? he specific re reinforcement of near term debt maturities wherein management borrows in advance to prefund a near term maturity. cash is held temporarily for legal, tax or other purposes and the company has publicly stated its intention to reduce debt once the temporary period has ended. ? Other instances, typically only for large companies, include situations in which management has a history of maintaining material lev els of cash on the balance sheet, it has publicly stated its intention not to pursue largedebt financed acquisitions or share repurchases, and cash is ready to hand(predicate) without meaningful loss to taxes.In Europe and Latin America, we also generally observe that companies are more willing to maintain higher cash balances that may sometimes be linked to tax considerations or more broadly reflect a more conservative style of financial policies. Considering only gross debt may not reflect the real financial strength of these companies and we may prefer in this case to focus on net debt. In these cases, however, we capture the expectation that these cash balances can be liquidated at least at book value and without tax costs.Factor 5 Financial Strength (27. 27%) * Weight a) EBITDA / Interest Expense b) Retained Cash Flow / Debt c) Free Cash Flow / Debt 9. 09% 9. 09% 9. 09% Aaa ? 20x ? 65% ? 40% Aa 15x 20x 45% 65% 25% 40% A 10x 15x 30% 45% 15% 25% Baa 5x 10x 20% 30% 8% 15 % Ba 2x 5x 10% 20% 4% 8% B 1x 2x 5% 10% . 5% 4% Caa 0. 5x 1x 1% 5% 0% . 5% Ca 0. 5x 1% 0% * Where appropriate net adjusted debt may be used (see discussion Cash Balances and Net Debt Considerations) 16 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ?Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry A chart that illustrates grid mapping results for Factor 5 and a discussion of outliers for companies in the sample is included in Appendix C. Assumptions, Limitations and Rating Considerations not Covered in the Grid The rating methodology grid incorporates a trade-off between simplicity that enhances transparency and greater complexity that would enable the grid to map more closely to actual ratings.The five rating factors in the grid do not constitute an exhaustive treatment of all of the considerations that are important for ratings of global chemical companies. In choosing metrics for this rating meth odology grid, we did not include certain important factors that are common to all companies in any industry, such as the quality and experience of management, assessments of corporate governance and the quality of financial reporting and information disclosure.The assessment of these factors can be highly subjective and ranking them by rating category in a grid would, in some cases, suggest too much precision in the relative ranking of particular issuers against all other issuers that are rated in various industry sectors. Ratings may include additional factors that are difficult to quantify or that only have a meaningful effect in differentiating credit quality in some cases. Such factors include regulatory and litigation risk as well as changes in end use demand such that todays specialty chemical becomes tomorrows commodity.While these are important considerations, it is not possible to precisely express these in the rating methodology grid without making the grid excessively com plex and less transparent. Ratings may also reflect circumstances in which the weighting of a particular factor or qualitative issue will be different from the weighting or outcome suggested by the grid. For example, the importance of the business profile score is highlighted by the fact that, in certain cases, it can outweigh all other factors in the methodology materially, lowering ratings significantly. The three most prominent examples are ? ? operations limited to a single site, and a business model whose success is highly dependent on government actions or policies. a company with significant litigation related to either environmental or product liability issues. This variation in weighting as a rating consideration can also apply to factors that we chose not to attempt to represent in the grid. For example, liquidity is a rating consideration that can sometimes be critical to ratings and under other circumstances may not have a substantial impact in discriminating between two issuers with a similar credit profile.Ratings can be heavily affected by extremely weak liquidity that magnifies indifference risk. However, two identical companies might be rated the same if their only differentiating feature is that one has a good liquidity position while the other has an extremely good liquidity position. This illustrates some of the limitations for using grid-indicated ratings to predict rating outcomes. Another consideration is the increase in pension underfunding that occurred at the end of 2008 as a result of large declines in the global equity markets.Increased pension fund liability is unlikely to be the sole driver of ratings downgrades where issuers have adequate liquidity, sufficient resources to alleviate their funding deficiency over time and financial metric contraction is modest for their rating category and the metric contraction is expected to only temporarily deviate. In evaluating the impact of an issuers pension liability on ratings, the analy st will consider the magnitude of the shortfall, the ability of the company to reduce the shortfall over time using internal sources and committed external sources of capital, and the plans for doing so.Issuers with higher ratings are likely to avoid a downgrade solely resulting from the increased pension liability if there is a clearly articulated plan for reducing the liability and we believe there are resources available to meet the plan without putting the core business and financial profile at risk. Issuers with speculative grade ratings and those at the lower end of investment grade rating levels are at greater risk of ratings transition because of higher potential exposure to liquidity issues and weaker perceived capability of eradicating the funding liability without weakening the companys financial or business position. 7 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry In addition, our ratings incorporate expectations for future performance, while the financial information that is used to illustrate the mapping in the grid is historical in practice we look at a combination of prior years and future years usually three years of history and two years looking forward. In some cases, our expectations for future performance may be informed by confidential information that we cannot publish.In other cases, we estimate future results based upon past performance, industry trends, demand and price outlook, competitor actions and other factors. In either case, predicting the future is subject to the risk of substantial inaccuracy. Assumptions that can cause our forward looking expectations to be preposterous include unanticipated changes in any of the following the macroeconomic environment and general financial market conditions, industry competition, new technology, regulatory actions, and changes in environmental regulation. Conclusion Summary of the Grid-Indicated Rating OutcomesThe methodology grid-indicated ratings based on last twelve month financial data as of the quarter end circumferent to September, 30, 2009 map to current assigned ratings as follows (see Appendix B for the details) ? ? 8 companies map to their assigned rating 10 companies have a grid-indicated rating that is one or two alpha-numeric notches from the assigned rating 2 companies have a grid-indicated rating that is three notches from their assigned rating ? Overall, the framework indicates that there are an even number of companies whose grid-indicated rating is below their actual rating (6) than above their actual rating (6).This can be attributed to a variety of factors including (a) willingness to look through periods of stronger or weaker activity where appropriate (b) grid metrics do not capture our expectation of lower raw material costs and their benefit to margins and (c) liquidity concerns such as generating cash from working cap ital in a downturn are not fully captured by the grid. 18 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical IndustryAppendix A Global Chemical Industry Methodology Factor Grid Weight Factor 1 Business Profile a) Business Position Assessment Factor 2 Size & Stability a) Revenue (Billions of US$) b) of Divisions of Equal Size c) Stability of EBITDA Factor 3 Cost Position a) EBITDA Margin b) ROA EBIT / Assets Factor 4 Leverage / Financial Policies * a) Current Debt / Capital b) Debt / EBITDA Factor 5 Financial Strength * a) EBITDA / Interest Expense b) Retained Cash Flow / Debt c) Free Cash Flow / Debt 9. 09% 9. 09% 27. 28% 9. 09% 9. 09% 9. 09% 18. 19% 9. 09% 9. 09% 18. 9% 9. 09% 9. 09% 27. 28% 9. 09% 9. 09% 9. 09% ? 20. 0x ? 65. 0% ? 40. 0% 15. 0x 20. 0x 45. 0% 65. 0% 25. 0% 40. 0% 10. 0x 15. 0x 30. 0% 45. 0% 15. 0% 25. 0% 5. 0x 10. 0x 20. 0% 30. 0% 8. 0% 15. 0% 2 . 0x 5. 0x 10. 0% 20. 0% 4. 0% 8. 0% 1. 0x 2. 0x 5. 0% 10. 0% 0. 5% 4. 0% 0. 5 1. 0x 1. 0% 5. 0% 0. 0 0. 5% 0. 5x 1. 0% 0. 0% 15. 0% 0. 50x 15. 0% 25. 0% 0. 50x 1. 50x 25. 0% 35. 0% 1. 50x 2. 25x 35. 0% 50. 0% 2. 25x 3. 00x 50. 0% 70. 0% 3. 00x 4. 00x 70. 0% 80. 0% 4. 00x 6. 00x 80. 0% 95. % 6. 00 8. 00x ? 95. 0% ? 8. 00x ? 30. 0% ? 25. 0% 20. 0% 30. 0% 15. 0% 25. 0% 15. 0% 20. 0% 10. 0% 15. 0% 10. 0% 15. 0% 7. 0% 10. 0% 8. 0% 10. 0% 4. 0% 7. 0% 4. 0% 8. 0% 2. 0% 4. 0% 1. 0% 4. 0% 0. 5% 2. 0% 1. 0% 0. 5% ? $50. 0 8 2. 0% $20. 0 $50. 0 6 to 7 2. 0% 6. 0% $10. 0 $20. 0 5 6. 0% 12. 0% $5. 0 $10. 0 4 12. 0% 20. 0% $1. 0 $5. 0 2 or 3 20. 0% 30. 0% $0. 2 1. 0 1 or 2 30. 0% 40. 0% $0. 1 $0. 2 1 40. 0% 60. 0% $0. 1 0. 5 ? 60. 0% ? 6. 0 4. 5 6. 0 3. 5 4. 5 2. 5 3. 5 1. 5 2. 5 0. 1. 5 0. 5 0. 5 0. 5 Aaa Aa A Baa Ba B Caa Ca * Where appropriate net adjusted debt may be used (see discussion Cash Balances and Net Debt Considerations) 19 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating Methodology Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Appendix B Methodology Grid-Implied Ratings Overall Grid Implied Rating Issuer Moodys Rating Business Profile Size & Stability of Divisions of Equal Size Baa Aa Aa Aa Aa A A B A Baa Ba Aa Ba B Ba B Caa Ba B Ba Cost PositionLeverage / Financial Policies EBITDA/ Interest Expense (3 Yr) Avg Aaa A A Aaa A Ba Baa Aaa A Baa A A B Ba B Ba B Ba B Ca Financial Strength Retained Cash Flow/ Debt (3 Yr Avg) Aaa A Baa A Ba Ba Ba Aaa A Baa Baa Baa B Ba B Ca Ba Ba Ba Caa Free Cash Flow/ Debt (3 Yr Avg) Ca Baa Ba Ca Ca Ba Ba Aa B B Ba Ba Ca Ba Ba Ca Ba Ca Ba Ca Business Position Assessment Shin-Etsu Chemical Company Ltd BASF (SE) E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company Revenue (Billions of US$) A Aaa Aa Ba Baa Aa Aa Baa A Baa A Aaa Baa Baa Ba Ba Baa A Ba Baa Stability of EBITDA Baa A Baa Ba Baa A Aa Ca Baa Ba Ba Baa Ba Ba A Baa C a Ba Ba BaEBITDA Margin % (3 Year Avg) Aaa A A Baa Baa A Baa Aaa Baa A Baa Baa A Aa A A Baa Ba B Ba ROA EBIT / Assets (3 Yr Avg) A A A Ba Ba Ba Ba Aaa A A A A Baa A Baa A Baa Ba Ba Ba Current Debt/Capital Aaa Baa Ba A Ba Baa Baa Baa Baa Ba Ba Ba B Caa Caa Caa Ba B Caa Ca Debt/ EBITDA (3 Yr Avg) Aaa Aa Baa A Ba Ba Ba Aa A Baa Baa Baa Ba Ba B B B B B Ca Aa3 A1 A2 A2 A3 A3 Baa1 Baa1 Baa1 Baa2 Baa2 Baa3 Ba1 Ba2 Ba3 Ba3 B1 B1 B1 B3 A1 A1 A3 Baa1 Baa3 Baa1 Baa1 A2 Baa1 Baa2 Baa2 A3 Ba3 Ba1 Ba1 Ba3 B1 Ba3 B1 B2 Aa Aa Aa A Aa Aa A A Ba A Baa Aa B Baa A Baa Ca Baa B Baa Kaneka Corporation Teijin Limited Bayer AG Akzo Nobel N.V. Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan LG Chem, Ltd. Eastman Chemical Company Yara International ASA Dow Chemical Company (The) Braskem SA Celanese Corporation Nalco Company ISP Chemco LLC NOVA Chemicals Corporation Huntsman Corporation PolyOne Corporation Hexion Specialty Chemicals Inc. Positive Outlier Negative Outlier For illustrative purposes most financial metrics u sed the last three full fiscal years of reported data FYs 2006, 2007 and 2008 20 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating MethodologyMoodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Appendix C Observations and Outliers for Grid Mapping Factor 1 Business Profile The majority of positive outliers for business profile are associated with companies whose financial strength, financial policy measures or liquidity are weakly positioned, providing offsets that are more consistent with the overall ratings. Factor 1 Business Profile Issuer Shin-Etsu Chemical Company Ltd BASF (SE) E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company Kaneka Corporation Teijin Limited Bayer AG Akzo Nobel N. V. Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan Inc.LG Chem, Ltd. Eastman Chemical Company Yara International ASA Dow Chemical Company (The) Braskem SA Celanese Corporation Nalco Company ISP Chemco LLC NOVA Chemicals Corporation Huntsman Corporation PolyOne Corpora tion Hexion Specialty Chemicals Inc. Positive Outlier Rating Aa3 A1 A2 A2 A3 A3 Baa1 Baa1 Baa1 Baa2 Baa2 Baa3 Ba1 Ba2 Ba3 Ba3 B1 B1 B1 B3 Business Position Assessment Aa Aa Aa A Aa Aa A A Ba A Baa Aa B Baa A Baa Ca Baa B Baa Negative Outlier 21 December 2009 ? Rating Methodology ? Moodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Rating MethodologyMoodys Global Corporate Finance Global Chemical Industry Factor 2 Size & Stability present the majority of positive outliers for revenue are associated with companies whose financial strength, financial policy measures or liquidity are relatively weakly positioned, providing offsets that are more consistent with the overall ratings. The negative outliers are largely related to the stability of EBITDA metric and reflect the volatility of cash flows in certain companies and sectors due to unprecedented high raw material prices and the significant global economic downturn in 2008.Factor 2 Size & Stability Revenue (Billions of US$) A Aaa Aa Ba Baa Aa Aa Baa A Baa A Aaa Baa Baa Ba Ba Baa A Ba Baa Issuer Shin-Etsu Chemical Company Ltd BASF (SE) E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company Rating Aa3 A1 A2 A2 A3 A3 Baa1 Baa1 Baa1 Baa2 Baa2 Baa3 Ba1 Ba2 Ba3 Ba3 B1 B1 B1 B3 of Divisions of Equal Size Baa Aa Aa Aa Aa A A B A Baa Ba Aa Ba B Ba B Caa Ba B Ba Stability of EBITDA Baa A Baa Ba Baa A Aa Ca Baa Ba Ba Baa Ba Ba A Baa Ca Ba Ba Ba Kaneka Corporation Teijin Limited Bayer AG Akzo Nobel N. V. Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan Inc. LG Chem, Ltd.Eastman Chemical Company Yara International ASA Dow Chemical Company (The) Braskem SA Celanese Corporation Nalco Company ISP Chemco LLC NOVA Chemicals Corporation Huntsman Corporation PolyOne Corporation Hexion Specialty Chemicals Inc. Positive Outlier Negative Outlier 22 December 2009 ? Rating